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Product General

Walnut Guide

Oct 21, 2021
Edited by
Yerin Yoon
image
HS Code: 080232 - Nuts, edible; walnuts, fresh or dried, shelled
|
FAO Code: 0222 - Walnuts, with shell
Top Exporter
2020
US flagUnited States
Top Importer
2020
DE flagGermany
Top Producer
2020
CN flagChina
Export Value
2020
2.24BUSD
1Y -2.63%
Import Value
2020
1.74BUSD
1Y +7.92%

Key varieties

What are the grades of walnut?

According to the Chilean Walnut Commission (2012), the grades of walnut are as follows:


[In-Shell]

  • Extra. Up to 10% external defects, up to 10% internal defects, more or equal 50% of extra light and light, less or equal 10% of yellow and amber.
  • Cat I. Up to 10% external defects and 15% internal defects more or equal 30% of extra light and light, less or equal 20% of yellow and amber.
  • Cat II. Up to 15% external defects and 15% internal defects, more or equal than 20% of extra light and light, less or equal 40% of yellow, and less or equal 30% of amber.

Note 1. External defects include open shell, slight stains, imperfect shell, cracked walnut, broken walnut, split walnut, serious stains, adhering hull presence.

Note 2. Internal defects include slight shriveling, inactive fungus, insects damage, serous shriveling, empty nuts, rancidity, active fungus/indication of decay.


[Shelled, Hand-Cracked]

a) Per presentation:

  • Halves. More or equal 90% halves and lees or equal 10% pieces. Up to 4 % of slight shriveling, slight stains, serious stains, serious shriveling, inactive fungus, insects damage, rancidity, active fungus/decay. 0,02 % impurities and 0 units in the foreign matter.
  • Halves and pieces. Between 20 and 90% of halves. (defects weigh tolerances regarding their proportion specified on the label should weigh).
  • Quarter. More or equal 75% quarters and less 25% pieces. Up to 6 % of slight shriveling, slight stains, serious stains, serious shriveling, inactive fungus, insects damage, rancidity, active fungus/decay. 0,02 % impurities and 0 units in the foreign matter.
  • Pieces. More or equal 25% pieces. Up to 9 % of slight shriveling, slight stains, serious stains, serious shriveling, inactive fungus, insects damage, rancidity, active fungus/decay. 0,02 % impurities and 0 units in the foreign matter.

b) Per color:

  • Extra light. More or equal 85% Extra Light, less 15% Light, 2% included in 15% Light Amber, 0% Amber, 5% included in 15% Yellow.
  • Light. More or equal 85% Light, less 15% Light Amber, 2 included in 15% Amber, 0% Amber, 10% included in 15% Yellow.
  • Light amber. More or equal 85% Light Amber, less 15% Amber, 5% included in 15% Yellow.
  • Amber. More or equal 90% Amber.
  • Yellow. Less 20% Light Amber, 2% included in 20% Amber, more or equal 80% Yellow.


[Shelled, Machine-Cracked]

a) Per presentation

  • Halves. More or equal 90% Halves, less 10% Quarters, less or equal 3% lower categories. Up to 4% defects. 0,02 % impurities and 0 units in the foreign matter.
  • Halves and pieces. Between 20 and 90% Halves, more or equal 11% quarters/pieces, less or equal 7% 6-9mm pieces, 3% less or equal lower categories.
  • Quarters. 75% more or equal quarters, 25% fewer pieces, less or equal 7% 3-9 mm pieces, 3% less or equal lower categories. Up to 6% defects. 0,02 % impurities and 0 units in the foreign matter.
  • Pieces. 75% more or equal pieces, 25% less 3-9 mm pieces, 7 % less or equal 3-6 mm pieces, 3% less or equal lower nut flour. Up to 9% defects. 0,02 % impurities and 0 units in the foreign matter.
  • 6 to 9 mm. 75% more or equal 3-9 mm pieces, 25% less 3-6 mm pieces, 3% less or equal lower nut flour.
  • 3 to 6 mm. 95% more or equal 3-6 mm pieces, 5% less nut flour.
  • Nut flour

b) Per color

  • Extra light. More or equal 85% Extra Light, less 15% Light, 2% included in 15% Light Amber, 0% Amber, 5% included in 15% Yellow.
  • Light. More or equal 85% Light, less 15% Light Amber, 2 included in 15% Amber, 0% Amber, 10% included in 15% Yellow.
  • Light amber. More or equal 85% Light Amber, less 15% Amber, 5% included in 15% Yellow.
  • Amber. More or equal 90% Amber.
  • Yellow. Less 20% Light Amber, 2% included in 20% Amber, more or equal 80% Yellow.
United States
Raw Walnut

Market outlook

How is the market landscape for in-shell walnuts?

Global Market

Global Market Size: $6 B (2020)

-12% increase in market size compared to previous year

-Expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2021-2025 at 3.1% CAGR 


Export Market

US: 415 M

Chile: 177 M

China: 169 M

Mexico: 94 M

France: 66 M

Turkey: 43 M

Australia: 11 M


Import Market

Mexico: 151 M

Turkey: 142 M

Italy: 119 M

UAE: 93 M

India: 57 M

Spain: 37 M

Germany: 36 M 


Trends

-Chile exported 90% more nuts in 2021 Q1 compared to that of the previous year

-Chile’s production increased in Q1 2021 due to increase in planted area, favorable weather conditions, and a rebound in demand for nuts

-India is becoming a large importer of walnuts; increased from only 215 tons imported in 2013 to 23 thousand tons in 2020

Chile
Raw Walnut

What is the market landscape for shelled walnuts?

Global Market

Global Market Size: $6 B (2020)

- 12% Increase in market size compared to previous year

- Expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2021-2025 at 3.1% CAGR 


Export Market

US: 832 M

Mexico: 491 M

Chile: 207 M

Germany: 138 M

China: 116 M

Ukraine: 88 M

Moldova: 70 M


Import Market

Germany: 313 M

Japan: 136 M

Spain: 121 M

Netherlands: 85 M

Canada: 84 M

South Korea: 82 M

UK: 78 M 


Key Trends

- Chile exported 90% more nuts in 2021 Q1 compared to that of the previous year

- Production increased due to an increase in planted area, favorable weather conditions, and a rebound in demand for nuts

- Generally, higher prices are achieved with light-colored kernel varieties, such as Chandler and bigger sizes

- Germany imports of Chilean walnut kernels increased by 30% over the last 5 years

Chile
Raw Walnut

Production Value Chain

Production Quality

What are the factors that determine the quality of walnut?

Referring to UNECE, the quality factors of walnuts are based on oil content, size, color, and nut defects. The walnuts are sorted throughout processing into three classes (extra, I, II). This is decided by size and color (extra light to amber). Examples of defects that are looked for and sorted out during processing are mold/rot, shell fragments, and insect damage. Defects that are allowed some tolerance are dark kernels, mold/rot, and scuffs.


The purpose of the standard is to define the quality requirements for walnut kernels at the export control stage, after preparation and packaging, further as follows:


Walnut Minimum Requirements (referring to UNECE)


a) In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, walnut kernels must be:

  • Sufficiently dry to ensure keeping quality;
  • Sound; produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded;
  • Firm;
  • Sufficiently developed; shriveled kernels are to be excluded;
  • Clean, practically free from any visible foreign matter and from shell;
  • Free from insects or mites whatever their stage of development;
  • Free from damage caused by pests ;
  • Free of any rancidity or oily appearance;
  • Free from mold;
  • Free of abnormal external moisture; and
  • Free of foreign smell and/or taste.

The condition of the walnut kernels must be such as to enable them:

- To withstand transport and handling; and

- To arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination.


b) Moisture content

The walnut kernels shall have a moisture content of not greater than 5 percent.


Walnut UECE Classification


a) "Extra" Class

Walnut kernels in this class must be of superior quality, uniformly light-colored with practically no dark straw and/or lemon-yellow color and with no dark brown. They must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. They must be practically free from defects with the exception of very slight superficial defects provided that these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality, or its presentation in the package.

Scuffing is allowed on:

- Quarters and all pieces; and

- Halves, provided it covers no more than 10% of the surface area of the skin.


b) Class I

Walnut kernels in this class must be of good quality, of color not darker than light brown and/or lemon-yellow. They must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. Slight defects may be allowed provided that these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality, or its presentation in the package.

Scuffing is allowed on:

- Quarters and all pieces; and

- Halves, provided it covers no more than 20% of the surface area of the skin.


c) Class II

This class includes kernels that do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above. Walnut kernels in this class must be of color not darker than dark brown. Darker kernels may be marketed in this class, provided the color is indicated on the package. Defects may be allowed, provided that the walnut kernels retain their essential characteristics as regards general appearance, quality, keeping quality, and presentation. This class also includes mixtures of kernels of different colors and is designated in the marking by the words 'mixed colors'.

Scuffing is not considered a defect.


Source: UNECE STANDARD DDP-02 concerning the marketing and commercial quality control of WALNUT KERNELS


United States
Raw Walnut

How are walnuts classified?

1) In-Shell Walnuts

Type: Bleached or natural

Size Categories: Measured according to diameter of the walnut in mm

-36+

-34-36

-32-34

-30-32

-28-30


2) Shelled Walnuts

Type: Industrial or semi machine cracked


Product:

-Halves

-Halves & Pieces

-Large pieces (up to 13 mm)

-Medium Pieces (9.5 – 13 mm)

-Small Pieces (4.5-9.5 mm)


Color:

-Extra Light

-Light

-Light Ambar


Packing Size:

-10 kg bag per carton (Halves)

-12 kg bag per carton (Large Pieces)

-14 kg bag per carton (Small & Medium Pieces)

Chile
Raw Walnut

How are Defective Walnuts Identified and What is the Criteria?

Any defects negatively affecting the appearance or edibility of the kernel including:

- Staining or discoloration: Abnormal coloration which covers more than one-eighth of the surface of the kernel and which is of color in pronounced contrast with the color of the rest of the kernel (dark blemishes or areas of discoloration);

- Embedded dirt: Kernels or portions of kernels with dirt or other foreign material embedded into the flesh of the kernel;

- Crushing of more than 5% of the volume of the kernel; and

- Drying defect: The kernel is moist, soft, or leathery.

  • Fragments: Kernel and skin fragments that can pass through a sizing screen of 3 mm diameter.
  • Shell: Outer shell and/or woody partition from between the halves of the kernel (internal central partition), and any fragments of either.
  • Shriveled kernels: Kernel which is seriously shrunken, wrinkled, and tough.
  • Mold: Mold filaments visible to the naked eye.
  • Decay: Significant decomposition caused by the action of microorganisms.
  • Insect damage: Visible damage caused by insects or other animal parasites in the presence of dead insects or insect debris.
  • Foreign matter: Any matter or material not usually associated with the product.
  • Mineral impurities: Acid insoluble ash.
  • Rancidity: Oxidation of lipids or free fatty acid production producing a disagreeable flavor.
  • Foreign smell/taste: Any odor or flavor that is not characteristic of the product.

Source: UNECE STANDARD DDP-02 concerning the marketing and commercial quality control of WALNUT KERNELS


United States
Raw Walnut
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