- Wilde carrots (Daucus carota (ordinary carrot) probably come from Persia. The plant was introduced to Europe by Spain in the 8th century and in the 10th century in West Asia and India. Modern carrots come from Afghanistan around the 12th century. The first carrot crops appeared in China in the 14th century and in Japan in the 18th century. Orange carrots appeared in the Netherlands in the 17th century.
- The stem of the plant rises upwards, is hollow and roughly hairy. The leaves are balanced, 2 or 3 times feathery. The flowers are small, have a white color, are collected in the umbel folded. The fruit is splitting, which breaks into 2 splines. The root is elongated, oval and pointed with an extensive granary, which stores food substances. It has a color from white, through yellow and orange-red to purple. The size 4 – 35 cm and diameter 3-7 cm.
- The biggest producers of carrot are: China (45% global carrot production), Uzbekistan (4,5% global carrot production) Russia (4% global carrot production), USA (4% global carrot production), Ukraine (2,5% global carrot production), Poland (2,5% global carrot production)
- Carrot is one of the ten most economically important cultivated vegetables in the world.
- There are 9 main species of carrot for production purposes : Amsterdam, Berlikum, Chantenay, Flakkee, Imperator, Kuroda, Nantes. The most popular for production are Nantes, Berlikum i Flakkee.
- Carrot contains ß-carotene, smaller amounts of alpha-carotene, γ-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Carrots are also a good source of dietary fiber (11% DW), vitamin K (16% DW) and vitamin B6 (11% DW). Carrots are 88% water, 4.7% sugar, 2.6% protein, 1% ash, and 0.2% fat. Carrots contain sucrose, glucose and fructose.
- The carrots are used for culinary purposes. Most carrots are used fresh but are also processed to juice, frozen or pickled.
xxxxx - carrots are harvested mechanicaly, tarditional harvesting is very rare
- Scientific name of carrot is: Daucus carota L.
- Subspecie of carrot for production purposes is: Daucus carota subsp. sativus
Another scientific names:
- Carota sativa
- Daucus carota var. sativus
- Daucus sativus
- 070610 Carrots and turnips, fresh or chilled
- 071080 Vegetables uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling in water, frozen
- 200190 Vegetables (other than cucumbers and gherkins), fruit, nuts and other edible parts of plants, prepared or preserved by vinegar or acetic acid
Major varieties of cultivated carrot:
- Amsterdam - often grown as an early season variety, 'Amsterdam' produces roots that are deep-orange in color and almost coreless. Average length is four to six inches and roots tend to be cylindrical and slim in shape. Good choice for greenhouse use, in addition to outdoor production.
- Berlikum is a fine winter root with a soft kernel. it is characterized by equal root diameter along its entire length. The taste is better than many other varieties, but due to the slightly greater softness, the handling characteristics in winter are slightly less. Berlikum has a high yielding and well suited for long term storage.
- Chantenay - carrots are short and stout, with broad 4-8cm crowns tapering quickly to a rounded point 15cm away. Chantenay carrots can be eaten raw or cooked, with their taste usually described as sweet and crisp.
- Flakkee, Long type carrot with strong very long roots up to 50cm long. It has good orange color and excellent flavor. Used mainly for processing purposes.
- Imperator, this carrot represents the best combination of eating qualities and fine appearance. The roots grow 18-2 cm long. They have a broad shoulder and gradually taper to a fine tap root. Due to their form they are easy to harvest.
- Kuroda - its roots are bright orange, 18 – 24 cm long, stump-rooted and cylindrical in shape are tender and sweet flavored. Popular Asian market variety.
- Nantes - they produce sweet, crisp 15-18cm cylindrical carrots, with blunt tips. They’re less likely to form pithy cores when left in the field
Carrots are classified according to three classes defined below:
1. 'Extra' class
- Carrots in this class must be of the highest quality and washed. It must be characteristic of the variety or commercial type. It must be free from defects with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
- The roots must: be smooth, have a fresh look, have a regular shape, be without furrows, be free from bruises and cracks, free from damage caused by frost.
- Green or purple / purple tops are not allowed.
2. Class I
Carrots in this class must be of good quality. It must be characteristic of the variety or commercial type.
- The roots must: have a fresh look, the following slight defects, however, may be allowed provided these do not affect the general appearance of the products, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package: slight defects in shape,
slight defects in coloring, scarring cracks, slight cracks or fissures resulting from handling or washing.
- Green or purple / purple tops up to 1 cm in length for carrots not exceeding 10 cm in length and up to 2 cm for other carrots are allowed.
3. Class II
- This class includes carrots which do not qualify for inclusion in the above mentioned higher classes but satisfy the minimum requirements set out above.
- The following defects may be allowed provided the product retains the essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation: defects in shape and color, scarred cracks not originating in the axle roll, cracks or fissures resulting from handling or washing.
- Green or purple / purple tops up to 2 cm in length for carrots not exceeding 10 cm in length and up to 3 cm for other carrots are allowed.
The size is determined on the basis of the largest diameter or weight of carrots without incision.
1. Early carrots and minor root varieties
- When sorting by diameter, the roots must be not less than 10 mm in diameter, and when sorted by weight, not less than 8 g.
- When sorting by diameter, the roots must be no more than 40 mm in diameter, and if sorted by weight, no more than 150 g.
2. Carrots from the main harvest and varieties with large roots
- When sorting by diameter, the roots must be not less than 20 mm in diameter, and when sorted by weight, not less than 50 g.
- When sorted by diameter, the roots classified in the "Extra" Class must be not more than 45 mm in diameter, and in the case of sorting by weight not more than 200 g, while the difference in diameter or weight between the smallest and largest root in any single package can not be more than 20 mm or 150 g.
- In the case of roots classified in Class I, the difference in diameter or weight between the smallest and largest roots in each individual package must not be more than 30 mm or 200 g.
- In the case of roots classified in class II, it is only necessary that the roots meet the minimum size requirements.
Carrot is processed to:
- juice - the juice is processed from fresh carrot with the press and packed to the glass or plastic bottles
- frozen - carrot in the state of consumer maturity after washing, sorting and drying is frozen in a freezing tunnel in the temperature -21 - -40 0C for a time necessary to obtain a temperature no higher than - 18 C.
- marinated - mostly pickled with vinegar or salt water
The quality of the product is determined with belowed factors:
- whole, not fragmented vegetable
- Healthy; a product with rotting symptoms or with such damage that renders it unfit for consumption is not allowed,
- clean -- virtually no visible foreign matter, if it has been washed,
- practically without excessive dirt and impurities, if it has not been washed, or if it has been washed and covered with clean peat,
- practically free from pests,
- practically free from damage caused by pests,
- without signs of root growth in the seed shoot,
- undeveloped, devoid of secondary roots,
- free of abnormal external moisture, i.e. properly drained after washing,
- free of any foreign smell and / or taste.
The degree of development and condition of the carrot must be such that it enables: good abolition of transport and handling, and arriving in a satisfactory condition to the destination.
Key factors that determine carrot prices:
- harvesting volume in particular regions in each year
- weather conditions,
- season of the year
- harvesting costs - mechanical or manual methods
- labor avaliability and fuel prices in harvesting period
- storage period
- transport costs
- production scale and the average size of farms