Product Intelligence

Cashew Nut

Similar Names
Anacardium occidentale
Cashew Nuts
Top Producer
Vietnam
0217 Cashew nuts, with shell
Top Exporter
Vietnam
080130 Cashew nuts, fresh or dried
Top Importer
India
080130 Cashew nuts, fresh or dried
Wholesale Prices
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$ 1.25 per kg
-3.8%
Aug, 2019
Apr 1
Aug 19
Product Intelligence of Cashew Nut

Definitive Guide to Cashew Nut

Everything you need to know about the basics, production, export and import of Cashew Nut.
Product Description
General Information

Origin.

-Cashew (A. occidentale L.) is native to Latin America and has a primary center of diversity in Amazonia, and a secondary one in the Planalto of Brazil. Natural occurrence of cashew has been reported from Mexico to Peru, and in the West Indies. It was one of the first fruit trees from the New World to be widely distributed throughout the tropics by the early Portuguese and Spanish adventurers. The name cashew is from the Portuguese caju, which in turn comes from the Tupi-Indian word acaju. The incoming colonists in what is now Brazil found that the native Indians valued both the cashew nut and the so-called apple, the fleshy pedicel or stalk of the fruit.

-Cashew was discovered by Portuguese traders and explorers in Brazil in 1578. It was introduced into West and East Africa and India by the Portuguese travelers in the 16thcentury. By then, cashew was considered a suitable crop for soil conservation, forestation, and also wasteland development. Therefore, the initial aim of cashew introduction to those areas was not to produce nuts and apples (pseudo-fruits), but to help control soil erosion on the coast.


-The nut is attached to the lower portion of the cashew apple which is conically shaped. The cashew nut (seed) hangs at the bottom of the apple, and is c-shaped.

-The cashew seed has within the outside shell the edible kernel or nut. In its raw form the cashew kernel is soft, white and meaty. When roasted it changes colour and taste. Salted, it appeals to the palate as the most delicious nut.


-Medicinal Uses: Bark of cashew is reported to have antihypertensive and blood glucose lowering potential. The kernel yields oil which can serve as mechanical and chemical antidote for irritant poisons. Cashew apple and its juice exhibit anti-scorbutic property. Juice of cashew apple is also used as Diuretic, in treatment of kidney diseases, and Cholera. The shell oil is used as mild purgative, for expulsion of hookworms, for cracks in feet, warts, corns, leprous sores. The resinous juice of seed is used in treatment of mental disorders, sexual debility and as a sequel to small pox.

-Edible Uses: The fleshy peduncle called cashew apple when ripe is used in beverages. The kernel is consumed as raw nuts, roasted nuts, fried nuts, salted nuts, dry fruit, and is added to cakes and deserts. In countries the leaves are used as vegetables. The wood of the tree is used as fuel.

-Commercial Uses: The bark of cashew tree is used in tanning industry. It is also used as an insecticide, and an adhesive for book binding. It is used in pharmaceutical industry as substitute for gum Arabic and is also used in making ink. The juice of cashew apple is used for making wine. The cashew apple is used in preparing various juices, syrups, candies and pickles. The residue of cashew apple is used to extract pectin. Vinegar is prepared from fresh fruit of cashew. The cashew nut shell is used in the cosmetic industry, pharmaceutical industry, textile industry, paper industry, and ink making. Cashew nut shell yields a vesicant juice known in trade as Cashew nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). CSNL is used in preservation of boats, nets, and wood. CNSL is used in insulating varnishes and resins. It is also used in paint industry, particle board adhesives, thermo-plastic resins, thermosetting resins, and plastic industry. The shell oil is also used as insecticide against mosquito larvae


General Information

Anacardium occidentale L. [Anacardiaceae]


Also referred to as:

- Acajuba occidentalis (L.) Gaertn

- Anacardium microcarpum Duck.

- Cassuvium pomiferum Lam.

General Information

ANDHRA PRADESH

BPP-1.

The average yield is 10 kg/tree. Nuts are medium in size with a nut weight of 5g and the shelling percentage of 27.5. Kernel protein percentage is 19.8%.The kernel grade is W 400.


BPP-2.

The average yield is 11 kg/tree. The nuts are small with a nut weight of 4g and shelling percentage of 25.7.. The protein content of kernels is 21.3%. The kernel grade is W 450.


BPP-3

The average yield recorded was 11 kg/tree. The nut weight is 4.8g with shelling percentage of 28.1. Protein content is 19.0%.The kernel grade is W 400.


BPP-4

The average yield is 10.5kg/tree with a nut weight of 6g. Shelling percentage is poor (23%). Protein % of kernels is 18.1%.The kernel grade is W 400.


BPP-5

The nut weight is 5.2g. The mean nut yield is 11kg/tree with shelling percentage of only 24. Protein percentage is also rather low (16.8%).The kernel grade is W 400.


BPP-6

Mean yield of nuts is about 10.5kg/tree. The nut weight is 5.2g and shelling percentage of this variety is also only 24. Protein percentage is 20.3%.The kernel grade is W 400.


BPP-8

The variety has mean yield of 14 kg/tree with better nut size (8.2g). Shelling percentage (29%) of this variety is also better than the rest of the varieties. The kernel grade is W 210.

TAMIL NADU

VRI-1 (M 10/4)

This variety is a selection from germplasm collected from Vazhisodhanipalayam in South Arcot District of Tamil Nadu. Mean yield is 7.2 kg/tree under Vridhachalam conditions. The nut size is small with 5g nut weight and shelling percentage of 28%. The kernel grade is W 320.


VRI-2 (M 44/3)

This variety is found adaptable over wide range of soils and regions. The average yield is about 7.4 kg/tree. The nut size is small with 5.1g nut weight with shelling percentage of 28.3%. The kernel grade is W 320.


VRI-3 (M 26/2)

The average yield of this variety is about 10 kg/tree, thus the increase over VRI-2 and VRI-1 being 35 to 39% respectively. The nut size is medium with 7.2g nut weight and shelling percentage of 29.1%. The kernel grade conforms to W 210 export grade.

ORISSA

Bhubaneswar-1

It has cluster bearing habit with about 12 fruits per bunch. This variety has average yield of 10 kg/tree with small nut size (4.6g nut weight). The shelling percentage is high (32%) with kernel grade of W 320.


Jagannath (BH 6)

Variety having bold nuts with 8.6g nut weight. The variety gives an average nut yield of 2.1 t/ha (10.5 kg/tree) and possesses high shelling percentage (32.5 %).


Balabhadra (BH 85)

Variety having bold nuts with 7.4g nut weight. The variety gives an average nut yield of 2.0 t/ha (10.0 kg/tree) and possesses high shelling percentage (30.0 %)

WEST BENGAL

Jhargram-1

It has on an average, 6 fruits per bunch and yield of 8.5 kg/tree with small nut size (5g nut weight). Shelling percentage is 30 and kernel grade is W 320.


Jhargram-2

The average nut weight is 9.2g with a kernel weight of 2.85g and high shelling (32%). The kernel grade is W 180.The variety can yield 13.5 kg/tree in 7th harvest.

MAHARASHTRA

Vengurla-1

The average yield is 19 kg/tree. The nut weight is 6.2g with the shelling percentage of 31. It is early flowering variety. Colour of the apple is yellow. Kernel grade is W 240.


Vengurla-2

The average yield is about 24 kg/tree (in 20th year of age). But the nuts are small with 4.3g nut weight and shelling percentage of 32. Colour of apple is pinkish red. Kernel grade is W 320.


Vengurla-3

Average yield is 14.4 kg/tree. This is a bold nut variety with the nut weight of 9.1g and shelling percentage of 27. Kernel grade is W210 (export grade).


Vengurla-4

The yield of nuts is 17.2 kg/tree. The nut weight is 7.7g and shelling percentage is 31. The colour of the apple is red. Kernel grade is 210 (export grade).


Vengurla-5

The average yield is 16.6 kg/tree. The nut size is small with 4.5 g nut weight. The shelling percentage is 30. Kernel grade is W 400.


Vengurla-6

The variety has average yield of 13.8 kg/tree with nut weight of 8g. The kernel grade is W 210. This variety is popular among farmers.


Vengurla-7

Average yield is 18.5 kg/tree. It is a bold nut type with nut weight of 10g and shelling percentage of 30.5. Kernel grade is W 180. Average weight of kernel is 2.9g.


Vengurla-8

It is a hybrid released in 2001 and yields 15-20 kg /tree. It has bold nuts with 86 nuts / kg. it is red apple variety with juice recovery is 85%.


GOA

Goa-1 (Balli-2)

The average yield of Goa-1 is 7.0 kg/tree with nut weight of 7.6 g (range : 7.3 – 7.9 g) and the shelling percentage of 30.0 (range : 28.9 – 31.0%). Kernel weight is 2.2 g. The kernel grade is W 210.


Goa-2 (Tiswadi-3)

The average yield of Goa-2 is 5.5 kg/tree with nut weight of 9.4 g (range : 9.2 – 9.6 g) and the shelling percentage of 29.25. Kernel weight is 2.3 g. The kernel grade is W 210.

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Contributed By
Irene Undiri

[White Pieces]

B(Butts)

-Kernels broken cross-wise and naturally.

-Cashew kernels shall be completely free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces shall be completely free from testa.


S(Splits)

-Kernels split naturally lengthwise.

-Cashew kernels shall be completely free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces shall be completely free from testa.


LWP(Large White Pieces)

-Kernels broken into more than two pieces and not passing through a 4-mesh 16 SWG sieve.

-Cashew kernels shall be completely free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces shall be completely free from testa.


SWP(Small White Pieces)

-Broken Kernels smaller than those described as WP but not passing through a 6-mesh 20 SWP sieve.

-Cashew kernels shall be completely free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces shall be completely free from testa


BB(Baby Bits)

-Plumules and broken kernels smaller than those descried as SWP but not passing thorough a 10-mesh 24 SWG sieve (uniform in size).

-Cashew kernels shall be completely free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces shall be completely free from testa.

[Scorched Pieces]

SB(Scorched Butts)

- Kernels broken cross-wise and naturally.

-Cashew kernels shall be free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces may be light brown or deep ivory in colour due to scorching as a result of over-beating.


SS(Scorched Splits)

- Kernels split naturally lengthwise.

-Cashew kernels shall be free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces may be light brown or deep ivory in colour due to scorching as a result of over-beating.


SP(Scorched Pieces)

- Kernels broken into pieces and not passing through a 4-mesh 16 SWG sieve.

-Cashew kernels shall be free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces may be light brown or deep ivory in colour due to scorching as a result of over-beating.


SSP(Second Scorched Pieces)

-Broken Kernels smaller than those described as SP but not passing through a 6-mesh 20 SWG sieve.

-Cashew kernels shall be free from rancid kernels.

-The pieces may be light brown or deep ivory in colour due to scorching as a result of over-beating.


SPS(Scorched Pieces Second )

- Kernels broken into pieces but not passing through a 4-mesh 16 SWG sieve Pieces of shrivelled .

-Kernels may be deformed due to immature nuts and black spots.

-Scorched pieces of cashew kernels with surface speckling and discolouration permitted.

- The kernels may be light brown, deep ivory or light to deep blue in colour.

-May be deformed due to immature nuts and may have spots.

-They shall be free from rancid kernels.


Powder(Kernel powder)

- Kernels broken to scorched powder during processing.

- Kernel powder shall have been obtained through deliberate breaking or as a process of peeling by hand.

-Shall be white, light brown, or brown but free from any infestation.

[Desert Pieces]

DP(Desert Pieces)

- Kernels broken into pieces but not passing through a 4-mesh 16 SWG sieve.

-The kernels may be deeply scorched.

-May have surface speckling and discolouration.

-May be brown, deep ivory or light to deep blue in colour.

-May be deformed and immature nuts and may have spots.


DSP(Desert Small Pieces)

- Kernels of the same description as above but smaller than DP.

-And not passing through a 6-mesh 20 SWG sieve More shrivelled than those described as SPS.

-Deeply scorched, The kernels may be deeply scorched.

-May have surface speckling and discolouration.

-May be brown, deep ivory of light to deep blue in colour.

-May be deformed and immature nuts and may have spots.


DB(Desert Butts)

- Kernels broken cross-wise and naturally attached More shrivelled than those described as SPS and deeply scorched.

- The kernels may be deeply scorched.

-May have surface speckling and discolouration.

-May be brown, deep ivory of light to deep blue in colour.

-May be deformed and immature nuts and may have spots.


DS(Desert Splits)

-Kernels split naturally lengthwise More shrivelled than those described as SPS and deeply scorched.

-The kernels may be deeply scorched.

-May have surface speckling and discolouration.

-May be brown, deep ivory of light to deep blue in colour.

-May be deformed and immature nuts and may have spots.

General Information

[White Whole Kernel]

• W180

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 265 to 395.

 

 •W210

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 440 to 465


 W240

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 485 to 530


 W280

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 575 to 620


 W320

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 660 to 706


 W400

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 770 to 880


W450

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 880 to 990


W500

-Shall be white, ivory or light ash in colour.

-Reasonably dry and free from damaged kernels

and black spots.

-Numbers of kernel per kg from 990 to 1100

[Scorched Whole Kernel]

•SW(Scorched Whole)

-Shall be reasonably dry

and free from damaged kernels, black

spots and testa. 

-Shall be completely

free from rancid kernels.

-Light brown, light ivory, light ash or deep

ivory in colour due to scorching as a result of overheating.


•SSW(Second Scorched Whole)

-Slightly scorched kernels and

kernels with slight speckling

and discoloration are permitted.

-Shall be completely free

from rancid kernels. 

-Light brown,

light blue, or light ivory in colour

due to scorching. 

-The kernels may also be immature.

[Dessert Whole Kernel]

•DW(Dessert Whole)

-shall be dry and free from insect damage and testa.

-Scorched, discoloured,speckled and shrivelled kernels

are permitted. 

-Rancid kernels may show deep black spot.

General Information

Collection & Drying

the raw cashew nuts (RCN) are collected from the farmers and dried in the sun to remove excess moisture. It is then subjected to a four step processing before packing, which includes the steam roasting, shell cutting, peeling and grading.


Steam Roasting.

The sun dried cashew nuts are subjected to steam roasting to remove

the outer shell and produce edible cashew kernels. The outer shell is a pretty hard one and contains oil, which is not suitable for human consumption. So proper care must be taken in this step where the raw nuts are connected to a boiler and steam roasted. Upon cooling the outer shells are removed with little difficulty.


Cutting.

the Outer shell of the roasted cashew nuts is cut off in this process. This can be regarded as a complex step in the entire process, where an unbroken kernel with a soft layer will be produced.


Peeling.

A process where the inner shell of the kernel is removed so as to produce white nuts. The peeling process is designed to remove the soft shell, which is enhanced by the cold treatment. This step of agro processing will give out the white coloured cashew nuts that are sent to the grading department.


Grading.

grading of cashew nuts is designed to sort out the wholes and pieces of cashew. This depends on the size, colour and texture of the nuts.

General Information

Raw cashew nut quality was evaluated using the globally accepted Out-Turn method [4] as follows;


- Sample Preparation

1 kg raw cashew nut sample was obtained from the bulk collected using Quarter sampling method.


- Moisture Content

Moisture content of the raw cashew nuts was carried out using [5].


- Nut Count

Numbers of raw cashew nut in the One kilogram raw cashew nut samples were counted and expressed in nuts/kg.


- Cutting Test

One kilogram each of the raw cashew nuts were cut through the line of intersection shell, the shells were separated from the kernel with attached testa. The kernel were then separated into different grades; Good kernels, Spotted kernels, Bad kernels, Premature kernels and Humidified kernels, using standard quality chart under good lighten. All the grades were weighed separately.


- Total Useful Kernels (U)

This was calculated using the standard method thus;

U = 100% of good kernel + 50% dotted kernels + 0% bad kernels + 50%premature kernels + 20% humidified kernels.


- Out-turn (Kernel output ratio) (OT)

This was calculated using standard method thus;

OT = Total useful kernels weight (gm) X 80/454.

Express in pounds quality (lbs quality).

Factors that determine the quality of Cashew Nut:

- Raw Cashew Nuts

 • Reasonably dry: about 8 – 10% moisture content.

 • Kidney shaped

 • Colour - gray, dark grey, greenish or brownish in colour.

 • Healthy nuts (free from mould, etc)

 • Free from foreign matter (max 0.5%) by weight (e.g. stones, leaves, metal piece, etc).

 • Max 15% defective.


- Cashew Kernels

 • Reasonably dry (max 5% moisture content)

 • Kidney shaped

 • White or scorched or dessert kernels in the form of wholes or pieces

 • Completely free from infestation, adhering testa and objectionable extraneous matter

 • Max 0.7% fatty acid content

General Information

- Cashew Nut harvesting cycle.

- Exchange rates, currencies have an impact in pricing.

- Transport costs and time.

- In shell cashew nuts.

- Cashew nut kernels.

- Consumer prices.

The value of cashew Nuts increases from production to consumer depending on the market.

Production
Intelligence on global production published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization. We follow the FAO Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated FAO Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
- 0217 Cashew nuts, with shell
FAO Code 0217 Cashew nuts, with shell
Export
Intelligence on global imports and imports published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN Comtrade: International Trade Statistics Database. We follow the HS Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated HS Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
HS Code 080130 Nuts, edible; cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled
Import
Intelligence on global imports and imports published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN Comtrade: International Trade Statistics Database. We follow the HS Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated HS Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
HS Code 080130 Nuts, edible; cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled

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