Product Intelligence

Common Bean

Similar Names
Phaseolus vulgaris
Field Bean
Pop Bean
Flageolet Bean
Pole Bean
Navy Bean
Haricot Bean
Bush Bean
Green Bean
Garden Bean
String Bean
Snap Bean
Runner Bean
French Bean
Top Exporter
Morocco
070820 Beans, shelled or unshelled, fresh or chilled
Belgium
071022 Beans, frozen, uncooked steamed or boiled
Argentina
071333 Kidney beans and white pea beans dried shelled
Top Importer
Spain
070820 Beans, shelled or unshelled, fresh or chilled
United States
071022 Beans, frozen, uncooked steamed or boiled
Brazil
071333 Kidney beans and white pea beans dried shelled
Wholesale Prices
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$ 2.03 per kg
+3.1%
Jul, 2019
Mar 4
Jul 15
Product Intelligence of Common Bean

Definitive Guide to Common Bean

Everything you need to know about the basics, production, export and import of Common Bean.
Product Description
General Information

The oldest-known bean evidence in the Americas was found in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE. 

- Genetic analyses, however, have shown that common bean was originated in Mesoamerica, and afterward migrated southward.

There is also evidence of peas carbon dated back to 9750 BC, found by archaeologists in Thailand. 

- Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the best-known species of the genus Phaseolus in the family Fabaceae with some fifty species of plants, all native to America. 

- It is an annual species, which is cultivated throughout the world. 

- There are many varieties and from the plant,  its green pods and dried beans are consumed.

It is a herbaceous plant with a well developed and fast growing root system.

-  There are two different phases during the biological cycle of the bean: 

The vegetative phase begins with germination and culminates with the appearance of the first floral bud in the determined varieties or the first cluster in the indeterminate ones.

The reproductive phase: that starts with the first floral bud or bunch to the maturity of the harvest.

- It is the world’s most important food legume, it has a high protein content and abundant fiber, complex carbohydrates, and other daily food needs such as vitamins (folate) and minerals (Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn).

-Of the total producing countries, 45% correspond to the Asian Continent, 35% to the American Continent, 17% to the African Continent, 2.5% to Europe and the rest to Oceania.

- In 2017 India produced 6.390.000 tns of beans, Myanmar 5.466.166 tns, Brazil 3.033.017 tns, and The United States of America 1.625.900 tns.

- As far as harvesting area: India 15.425.864 ha, Myanmar 3.182.144 ha, and Brazil 2.795.284 ha.

- The main and most important use of beans is culinary.

General Information

- The scientific name for Common bean is Phaseolus vulgaris L.

- From it, there can be several different colors, sizes, and shapes of beans. Each country has developed its own cultivars.

The most known ones are:

Pinto, Navy, Cranberry, Dark and Light Red Kidney, Pink, Black or black turtle bean, Yellow Eye, Great Northern, White Marrow, White Kidney or Cannellini bean.


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Contributed By
image
Dan Kleiner
General Information

Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding Systems (HS)

07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers.

0713  Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or not skinned or split

0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans (Phaseolus vulgaris):

0713.33.10 Seeds of a kind used for sowing

0713.33.20 If entered for consumption during the period from May 1 to August 31, inclusive, in any year

0713.33.40 If entered for consumption outside the above stated period, or if withdrawn for consumption at any time.

General Information

Of about 600 varieties are grown in the world, 62 are commercial market classes and some are internationally recognized:

Pinto: are named for their mottled skin.

Navy: white or haricot beans.  It is a tiny, dry white bean, smaller than many other types of white beans and has an oval, slightly flattened shape.

Cranberry:  originated in Colombia as the cargamanto bean. Medium to large sized, tan or hazelnut-colored splashed with red, magenta or black.

Dark and Light Red Kidney: also known as red beans are named for their visual resemblance in shape and color to the organ.

Pink: small, pale pink, oval-shaped beans.

Black or black turtle bean: it has small, shiny black seeds and dense, meaty texture.

Yellow Eyeis an ivory-colored bean with a mustard yellow splotch at its inner seam. It has a mildly sweet, earthy flavor and creamy texture.

Great Northern: medium-sized beans known for their mild, nutty flavor and firm flesh.

White Marrowsmall, plump, off-white bean that boasts a mild, bacon-like flavor and a creamy texture

White Kidney or Cannellini bean: they have a nutty, earthy flavor and tender flesh.

General Information

- The following standards apply to beans of varieties (cultivars) grown from Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus coccineus L., fresh to the consumer.

Minimum requirements: beans must be intact (according to the limits that will be stated below), sound (if it is affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is must be excluded), clean, almost free of any visible foreign matter, fresh in appearance, free from parchment (hard endoderm), practically free from pests and damage caused by pests, free of abnormal external moisture, free of any foreign smell and/or taste. 

Classification

“Extra” Class: has got to be of higher quality. They must be a true representative of the variety and/or commercial type. Also turgid, easily snapped, very tender, practically straight and stringless. If seeds are present they must be small and soft, however, needle beans must be seedless. Finally, in order to be considered "Extra" Class, beans have to be free from defects, except for very slight superficial defects, if they do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package. 

Class I: are those beans of good quality. They must be a true representative of the variety and/or commercial type, turgid, young and tender and practically stringless except in the case of beans meant for slicing. If seeds are present they must be small and soft.

The following slight defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package: a slight defect in shape, slight defects in coloring, and slight skin defects. 

Class II: includes beans that for some reason do not qualify for the above classes but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above: reasonably tender and free from rust spots in the case of needle beans. If seeds are present, they should not be too large and must be reasonably soft. It may present the following flaws provided the beans retain their essential

characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality, and presentation: defects in shape, defects in coloring, skin defects, strings, and slight rust spots except in the case of needle beans. 

Sizing

Size is determined by the maximum width of the pod measured at right angles to the seam. Needle beans in the same package shall not exceed:

• 6 mm when marked “very fine”

• 9 mm when marked “fine”

• 12 mm when marked “medium”. 


Quality tolerances

“Extra” Class: A total tolerance of 5% by number or weight of beans that do not meet the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class I is allowed. Within this tolerance, no more than 0.5% in total may consist of produce satisfying the requirements of Class II quality.

Class I: A total tolerance of 10 % by number or weight of beans that do not meet the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class II is allowed. Within this tolerance, no more than 1% in total may consist of produce satisfying neither the requirements of Class II quality nor the minimum requirements or of produce affected by decay. 

No tolerance is allowed when produce is affected by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (bean spot disease).

Within this tolerance, a maximum of 5 %, by number or weight, may have strings in the case of a variety and/or commercial type that should be stringless. In addition, a maximum of 15% by number or weight, of beans (excluding needle beans) may have the stalk and a small section of the narrow part of the neck missing provided these pods remain closed, dry and not discolored. 

Class II: A total tolerance of 10%, by number or weight, of beans satisfying neither the requirements of the class nor the minimum requirements is allowed. Within this tolerance, no more than 2% in total may consist of produce affected by decay. 

No tolerance is allowed when produce is affected by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (bean spot disease).

In addition, a maximum of 30%, by number or weight, of beans (excluding needle beans) may have the stalk and a small section of the narrow part of the neck missing provided these pods remain closed, dry and not discolored. 


Size tolerances

For all classes (if sized): a total tolerance of 10% by number or weight, of beans not satisfying the requirements as regards sizing is allowed. 


 Presentation

-Uniformity: The contents inside each package has to be uniform and contain only beans of the same origin, variety or commercial type, quality and size (if sized). Whatever part visible of the content of the package must be a true representative of the entire content. 

- Packaging: it must protect the produce properly. The materials used inside the package must be clean and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce. The use of materials, particularly of paper or stamps bearing trade specifications, is allowed, provided the printing or labeling has been done with non-toxic ink or glue. Packages must be free of all foreign matter. 




Bean paste: The process begins in a similar way to that of canned beans. Some canned products require that the bean be cooked and ground into a paste. The paste would be placed in cans, sealed and then thermally processed with a retort. Refried beans and bean paste are just two of the products that would be processed in this manner.

General Information

80% of world trade is concentrated in dry grains, regardless of their color and types, while only 20% consists of flour and/or industrialized products, mainly canned goods.

- Before undergoing any processing, beans must be conditioned. This is accomplished by the use of gravity separators, sifters, sieves, destoners and aspirators that allows the processor to remove foreign material, stones, broken beans, and split beans.

Yet these methods do not separate beans by color. If that is required, then a color sorter is needed. It uses optical technology and near-infrared systems to separate the beans by color and shape.

All of these steps result in beans which are of similar color and free of broken and split beans. Usually, beans that are split are used for making pastes and flours.


Canned beans: Conditioned beans are inspected again prior to entering the bean processing plant. Once approved, they are rinsed in the case of a cooked bean product, blanched, placed in cans and then brine (i.e. salt solution) or other sauce, such as chili. The containers (cans) are sealed and then placed in a retort for canning using high temperature and pressure. The finished products are shelf stable canned beans with or without sauces. 


Baked beans: these are not actually baked. Raw beans are canned along with the sauce and then heated to 120º. After this process, they are carefully cooled down so to prevent the beans from changing its color. They are finally labeled and boxed.


Refried beans: The process begins in a similar way to that of canned beans. Some canned products require that the bean be cooked and ground into a paste. The paste would be placed in cans, sealed and then thermally processed with a retort. Refried beans and bean paste are just two of the products that would be processed in this manner. The process continues for refried beans as the paste is baked or fried and seasoned before being canned.


Bean flours: There are mainly two approaches used to make bean

flour. One is using pre-cook beans, where they are blanched and dried prior to being made into flour. An alternative method is to grind the beans into flour first and then apply a heat treatment. Raw bean flours are rarely used by the industry as the bean flour can undergo off-flavor formation during storage in 3-4 months. Bean flour can be further processed into breakfast and snack food products, as well as a texturing ingredient in tortilla chips, baked products, and pasta. 


Puff cereal or snack product: The process begins when the bean flour and water mix move down the barrels into the extruder (it is similar to a press but it uses under high pressure and temperature). The bean flour hydrates into a paste-like consistency while continuing through the extruder. The paste-like material is plasticized and discharged in the mold. The matrix is partly responsible for the shape. Pressure builds up inside the extruder as the material moves through. This pressure is released when the product moves through the mold. The pressure drop causes the bean flour-water mix to puff hence obtaining the snack.


General Information

The quality of beans is mainly measured by the following aspects:

Beans must be intact, sound, clean, almost free of any visible foreign matter, fresh in appearance, free from parchment (hard endoderm), practically free from pests and damage caused by pests, free of abnormal external moisture, free of any foreign smell and/or taste. 

Classification

“Extra” Class: has got to be of higher quality. They must be a true representative of the variety and/or commercial type. Also turgid, easily snapped, very tender, practically straight and stringless. If seeds are present they must be small and soft, however, needle beans must be seedless. Finally, in order to be considered "Extra" Class, beans have to be free from defects, except for very slight superficial defects, if they do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.

Class I: are those beans of good quality. They must be a true representative of the variety and/or commercial type, turgid, young and tender and practically stringless except in the case of beans meant for slicing. If seeds are present they must be small and soft.

The following slight defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package: a slight defect in shape, slight defects in coloring, and slight skin defects.

Class II: includes beans that for some reason do not qualify for the above classes but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above: reasonably tender and free from rust spots in the case of needle beans. If seeds are present, they should not be too large and must be reasonably soft. It may present the following flaws provided the beans retain their essential

characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality, and presentation: defects in shape, defects in coloring, skin defects, strings, and slight rust spots except in the case of needle beans. 


General Information
Phaseolus vulgaris L., is the most important food legume for direct

consumption in the world.

- When addressing the price of beans, like most crops, its quality will certainly have an effect on the selling price.

- Yields obtained, costs of supplies for harvesting and substitution of the crop can influence prices.

- Rainfall and drought can damage supply, and therefore, also have an impact on that variable.

- Labor costs and logistics expenses are also key components.


help
Contributed By
image
Dan Kleiner
Export
Intelligence on global imports and imports published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN Comtrade: International Trade Statistics Database. We follow the HS Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated HS Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
HS Code 070820 Vegetables, leguminous; beans (vigna spp., phaseolus spp.), shelled or unshelled, fresh or chilled
HS Code 071022 Vegetables, leguminous; beans (vigna spp., phaseolus spp.), shelled or unshelled, uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling in water, frozen
HS Code 071333 Vegetables, leguminous; kidney beans, including white pea beans (phaseolus vulgaris), dried, shelled, whether or not skinned or split
Import
Intelligence on global imports and imports published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN Comtrade: International Trade Statistics Database. We follow the HS Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated HS Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
HS Code 070820 Vegetables, leguminous; beans (vigna spp., phaseolus spp.), shelled or unshelled, fresh or chilled
HS Code 071022 Vegetables, leguminous; beans (vigna spp., phaseolus spp.), shelled or unshelled, uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling in water, frozen
HS Code 071333 Vegetables, leguminous; kidney beans, including white pea beans (phaseolus vulgaris), dried, shelled, whether or not skinned or split

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