Bean paste: The process begins in a similar way to that of canned beans. Some canned products require that the bean be cooked and ground into a paste. The paste would be placed in cans, sealed and then thermally processed with a retort. Refried beans and bean paste are just two of the products that would be processed in this manner.
- 80% of world trade is concentrated in dry grains, regardless of their color and types, while only 20% consists of flour and/or industrialized products, mainly canned goods.
- Before undergoing any processing, beans must be conditioned. This is accomplished by the use of gravity separators, sifters, sieves, destoners and aspirators that allows the processor to remove foreign material, stones, broken beans, and split beans.
Yet these methods do not separate beans by color. If that is required, then a color sorter is needed. It uses optical technology and near-infrared systems to separate the beans by color and shape.
All of these steps result in beans which are of similar color and free of broken and split beans. Usually, beans that are split are used for making pastes and flours.
Canned beans: Conditioned beans are inspected again prior to entering the bean processing plant. Once approved, they are rinsed in the case of a cooked bean product, blanched, placed in cans and then brine (i.e. salt solution) or other sauce, such as chili. The containers (cans) are sealed and then placed in a retort for canning using high temperature and pressure. The finished products are shelf stable canned beans with or without sauces.
Baked beans: these are not actually baked. Raw beans are canned along with the sauce and then heated to 120º. After this process, they are carefully cooled down so to prevent the beans from changing its color. They are finally labeled and boxed.
Refried beans: The process begins in a similar way to that of canned beans. Some canned products require that the bean be cooked and ground into a paste. The paste would be placed in cans, sealed and then thermally processed with a retort. Refried beans and bean paste are just two of the products that would be processed in this manner. The process continues for refried beans as the paste is baked or fried and seasoned before being canned.
Bean flours: There are mainly two approaches used to make bean
flour. One is using pre-cook beans, where they are blanched and dried prior to being made into flour. An alternative method is to grind the beans into flour first and then apply a heat treatment. Raw bean flours are rarely used by the industry as the bean flour can undergo off-flavor formation during storage in 3-4 months. Bean flour can be further processed into breakfast and snack food products, as well as a texturing ingredient in tortilla chips, baked products, and pasta.
Puff cereal or snack product: The process begins when the bean flour and water mix move down the barrels into the extruder (it is similar to a press but it uses under high pressure and temperature). The bean flour hydrates into a paste-like consistency while continuing through the extruder. The paste-like material is plasticized and discharged in the mold. The matrix is partly responsible for the shape. Pressure builds up inside the extruder as the material moves through. This pressure is released when the product moves through the mold. The pressure drop causes the bean flour-water mix to puff hence obtaining the snack.
- The oldest-known bean evidence in the Americas was found in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE.
- Genetic analyses, however, have shown that common bean was originated in Mesoamerica, and afterward migrated southward.
- There is also evidence of peas carbon dated back to 9750 BC, found by archaeologists in Thailand.
- Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the best-known species of the genus Phaseolus in the family Fabaceae with some fifty species of plants, all native to America.
- It is an annual species, which is cultivated throughout the world.
- There are many varieties and from the plant, its green pods and dried beans are consumed.
- It is a herbaceous plant with a well developed and fast growing root system.
- There are two different phases during the biological cycle of the bean:
The vegetative phase begins with germination and culminates with the appearance of the first floral bud in the determined varieties or the first cluster in the indeterminate ones.
The reproductive phase: that starts with the first floral bud or bunch to the maturity of the harvest.
- It is the world’s most important food legume, it has a high protein content and abundant ﬁber, complex carbohydrates, and other daily food needs such as vitamins (folate) and minerals (Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn).
-Of the total producing countries, 45% correspond to the Asian Continent, 35% to the American Continent, 17% to the African Continent, 2.5% to Europe and the rest to Oceania.
- In 2017 India produced 6.390.000 tns of beans, Myanmar 5.466.166 tns, Brazil 3.033.017 tns, and The United States of America 1.625.900 tns.
- As far as harvesting area: India 15.425.864 ha, Myanmar 3.182.144 ha, and Brazil 2.795.284 ha.
- The main and most important use of beans is culinary.