The quality of beans is mainly measured by the following aspects:
Beans must be intact, sound, clean, almost free of any visible foreign matter, fresh in appearance, free from parchment (hard endoderm), practically free from pests and damage caused by pests, free of abnormal external moisture, free of any foreign smell and/or taste.
“Extra” Class: has got to be of higher quality. They must be a true representative of the variety and/or commercial type. Also turgid, easily snapped, very tender, practically straight and stringless. If seeds are present they must be small and soft, however, needle beans must be seedless. Finally, in order to be considered "Extra" Class, beans have to be free from defects, except for very slight superficial defects, if they do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
Class I: are those beans of good quality. They must be a true representative of the variety and/or commercial type, turgid, young and tender and practically stringless except in the case of beans meant for slicing. If seeds are present they must be small and soft.
The following slight defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package: a slight defect in shape, slight defects in coloring, and slight skin defects.
Class II: includes beans that for some reason do not qualify for the above classes but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above: reasonably tender and free from rust spots in the case of needle beans. If seeds are present, they should not be too large and must be reasonably soft. It may present the following flaws provided the beans retain their essential
characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality, and presentation: defects in shape, defects in coloring, skin defects, strings, and slight rust spots except in the case of needle beans.
- The oldest-known bean evidence in the Americas was found in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE.
- Genetic analyses, however, have shown that common bean was originated in Mesoamerica, and afterward migrated southward.
- There is also evidence of peas carbon dated back to 9750 BC, found by archaeologists in Thailand.
- Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the best-known species of the genus Phaseolus in the family Fabaceae with some fifty species of plants, all native to America.
- It is an annual species, which is cultivated throughout the world.
- There are many varieties and from the plant, its green pods and dried beans are consumed.
- It is a herbaceous plant with a well developed and fast growing root system.
- There are two different phases during the biological cycle of the bean:
The vegetative phase begins with germination and culminates with the appearance of the first floral bud in the determined varieties or the first cluster in the indeterminate ones.
The reproductive phase: that starts with the first floral bud or bunch to the maturity of the harvest.
- It is the world’s most important food legume, it has a high protein content and abundant ﬁber, complex carbohydrates, and other daily food needs such as vitamins (folate) and minerals (Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn).
-Of the total producing countries, 45% correspond to the Asian Continent, 35% to the American Continent, 17% to the African Continent, 2.5% to Europe and the rest to Oceania.
- In 2017 India produced 6.390.000 tns of beans, Myanmar 5.466.166 tns, Brazil 3.033.017 tns, and The United States of America 1.625.900 tns.
- As far as harvesting area: India 15.425.864 ha, Myanmar 3.182.144 ha, and Brazil 2.795.284 ha.
- The main and most important use of beans is culinary.