- Of about 600 varieties are grown in the world, 62 are commercial market classes and some are internationally recognized:
Pinto: are named for their mottled skin.
Navy: white or haricot beans. It is a tiny, dry white bean, smaller than many other types of white beans and has an oval, slightly flattened shape.
Cranberry: originated in Colombia as the cargamanto bean. Medium to large sized, tan or hazelnut-colored splashed with red, magenta or black.
Dark and Light Red Kidney: also known as red beans are named for their visual resemblance in shape and color to the organ.
Pink: small, pale pink, oval-shaped beans.
Black or black turtle bean: it has small, shiny black seeds and dense, meaty texture.
Yellow Eye: is an ivory-colored bean with a mustard yellow splotch at its inner seam. It has a mildly sweet, earthy flavor and creamy texture.
Great Northern: medium-sized beans known for their mild, nutty flavor and firm flesh.
White Marrow: small, plump, off-white bean that boasts a mild, bacon-like flavor and a creamy texture
White Kidney or Cannellini bean: they have a nutty, earthy flavor and tender flesh.
- The oldest-known bean evidence in the Americas was found in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE.
- Genetic analyses, however, have shown that common bean was originated in Mesoamerica, and afterward migrated southward.
- There is also evidence of peas carbon dated back to 9750 BC, found by archaeologists in Thailand.
- Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the best-known species of the genus Phaseolus in the family Fabaceae with some fifty species of plants, all native to America.
- It is an annual species, which is cultivated throughout the world.
- There are many varieties and from the plant, its green pods and dried beans are consumed.
- It is a herbaceous plant with a well developed and fast growing root system.
- There are two different phases during the biological cycle of the bean:
The vegetative phase begins with germination and culminates with the appearance of the first floral bud in the determined varieties or the first cluster in the indeterminate ones.
The reproductive phase: that starts with the first floral bud or bunch to the maturity of the harvest.
- It is the world’s most important food legume, it has a high protein content and abundant ﬁber, complex carbohydrates, and other daily food needs such as vitamins (folate) and minerals (Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn).
-Of the total producing countries, 45% correspond to the Asian Continent, 35% to the American Continent, 17% to the African Continent, 2.5% to Europe and the rest to Oceania.
- In 2017 India produced 6.390.000 tns of beans, Myanmar 5.466.166 tns, Brazil 3.033.017 tns, and The United States of America 1.625.900 tns.
- As far as harvesting area: India 15.425.864 ha, Myanmar 3.182.144 ha, and Brazil 2.795.284 ha.
- The main and most important use of beans is culinary.