Product Intelligence

Garlic

Similar Names
Allium sativum
Top Producer
South Africa
0406 Garlic
Top Exporter
China
070320 Garlic, fresh or chilled
Top Importer
Indonesia
070320 Garlic, fresh or chilled
Wholesale Prices
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$ 2.29 per kg
-0.1%
Jul, 2019
Mar 4
Jul 15
Product Intelligence of Garlic

Definitive Guide to Garlic

Everything you need to know about the basics, production, export and import of Garlic.
Product Description
General Information

- Traces of the origin of Garlic were found in Turkestan (border between China and Afghanistan and Iran). From there, it was taken to China, India, eastern and northern Europe, and the Mediterranean to the west.

- The movements and excursions of nomadic hunters contributed to the dispersal of Garlic as a result of its qualities to conserve meat and fish, the small size for transportation and the ease of storage.

- It is a perennial plant of the Liliaceae family. They reach up to 1.5 m in height. Its leaves are flat up to 8 mm wide. Its flowers are greenish or whitish, sometimes pink, very little abundance and sometimes nonexistent, which protrude with its long peduncle on a head of bulbils. The bulb (head of garlic) is formed by a white envelope inside which are several small bulbs commonly named "teeth".

The plant generates a spicy bulb which is the part that is mainly used. This bulb is formed by a variable number of teeth, each covered by a tunic of variable color. The whole bulb is covered, simultaneously, by exterior tunics of a whitish color. In a bulb, which is roundly shaped, there can be between 8-14 teeth and its weight is between 30-100 g

- China is the main garlic producer. Shandong, an eastern coastal province, located to the southwest of Beijing is the main producing region followed by Henan and Jiangsu.

- In 2017 China´s yield reached approximately 271.000 hg/ha.

The most common species include 

Allium sativum (var. sativum)-White or artichoke-Violet-Silverskin.

Allium sativum (var. longicuspis)-Red or Rocambole-purple-pink.

Allium sativum (var. ophioscorodon)-Borwn or Continental.

Although garlic is fundamentally a condiment (and its demand responds to this aptitude), it is part of popular medicine of many countries of the world, having found records dating more than 6,000 years old.

- Modern science considers it with excellent properties (bacteriostatic,

fungistatic, lipid-lowering, antiplatelet, antioxidants), both for human use,

veterinary or agronomic.


General Information

- Garlic (Allium sativum) belongs to the Alliaceae family for modern taxonomy.

 -Common cultivar´s are:

Scientific name                                                  Common name 

Allium sativum (var. sativum)                   White or artichoke-Violet-Silverskin.

Allium sativum (var. longicuspis)              Red or Rocambole-purple-pink.

Allium sativum (var. ophioscorodon)        Borwn or Continental.

General Information

Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding Systems (HS)


-070310 Vegetables, alliaceous; onions and shallots, fresh or chilled


-070320 Vegetables, alliaceous; garlic, fresh or chilled


-070390 Vegetables, alliaceous; leeks and other kinds n.e.c. in heading no. 0703, fresh or chilled


0703 Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, fresh or chilled:

0703.10 Onions and shallots:

0703.10.20 00 Onion sets 

0703.10.30 00 Pearl onions not over 16 mm in diameter

0703.10.40 00 Other

0703.20.00 Garlic 

0703.90.00 00 Leeks and other alliaceous vegetables

General Information

Allium sativum (var. sativum) White or artichoke-Violet-Silverskin.

-White garlic: Its teeth have white or yellowish white skin and sometimes has violet stretch marks. It can belong to the group of common or noble kinds of garlic. They are semi-round garlic, they have good conservation, very good gastronomic value, and good nutraceutical properties. Very good pungency and very good aroma. 

-Violet garlic: Its teeth skin is light brown or similar tones, the bulb is white with soft violet striations. It belongs to the noble garlic family. They are semi-early garlic. They have poor conservation capacity, but very good gastronomic value. They accompany fish and seafood well. 


Allium sativum (var. longicuspis) Red or Rocambole-purple-pink.

 -Red garlic: Its teeth have red skin or similar tones, its bulb is white and its neck is hard due to the presence of floral stem; it belongs to the noble garlic group. They are late harvest, have good conservation and good gastronomic and nutraceutical properties. Highly recommended for seasoning red meats, pasta and to make sauces. Very suitable for peeling. 

 -Purple garlic: Their teeth have light brown skin or similar tones, the bulb has strong purple striations and has a hard neck because it has a floral stem. It belongs to the noble garlic family. They are early harvest garlic, they have poor conservation capacity, regular gastronomic value, and regular nutraceutical properties. It is used in salad dressing mostly.

-Pink garlic: the skin of the teeth, as well as the bulb, presents in pink or related tints, with a hard neck because it has a floral stem. It belongs to the group of common garlic and has poor conservation properties. It is used in salad dressing mostly.


Allium sativum (var. ophioscorodon) Borwn or Continental.

 -Brown garlic: Their teeth have brown skin or similar tonnage, their necks are hard due to the presence of floral stem, and belong to the noble garlic group. It is a very late harvest garlic, it has very good conservation and very good gastronomic and nutraceutical properties. 

General Information

Definition of produce

This standard applies to garlic of varieties (cultivars) grown from Allium sativum L. to be supplied 1(fresh), 2(semi)-dry or 3(dry) to the consumer, garlic for processing being excluded. 


Classification

Garlic is classified into three classes defined below:

-(i) "Extra" Class: Garlic must be of better quality and characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type.

The bulbs must be:

- untouched

- normally shaped

- properly cleaned

They must have no defects with the exception of very slight superficial stains, taking into account this should not interfere with the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping

quality and presentation in the package. The cloves must be tight. The roots must be cut close to the base of the bulb in the case of dry garlic. 


-(ii) Class I: Garlic in this class must be of acceptable quality. They must meet the characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type.

The bulbs must be:

- untouched

- normally shaped

Small flaws, however, may be allowed should these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the conservation capacity and presentation in the package: slight tears in the outer skin of the bulb are accepted. The cloves must be reasonably tight within reason.

(iii) Class II: This class includes garlic that does not meet the standards for inclusion in the higher classes yet manage to satisfy the minimum requirements specified above. The following defects may be allowed as long as the garlic retains its essential characteristics when it comes to quality, the conservation capacity and presentation: 

-tears in the outer skin or missing parts of the outer skin of the bulb

-healed injuries

-slight bruises

-irregular shape

-up to three cloves missing


Provisions concerning size

Size class is determined by the maximum diameter of the equatorial section of the garlic:

(i) The minimum diameter is set at 45 mm for garlic in the "Extra" Class and 30 mm for garlic in Classes I and II.

(ii) If garlic is presented loose - without stems - or in bunches, the difference in diameter between the smallest and largest bulb in the same package may not exceed:

- 15 mm when the smallest bulb has a diameter of less than 40 mm.

- 20 mm when the smallest bulb has a diameter equal to or more than 40 mm.

Quality tolerances

(i) "Extra" Class: 5%  weight of bulbs not meeting the requirements of the class, but satisfying those of Class I or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that class.

(ii) Class I: 10 % weight of bulbs not satisfying the requirements of the class, but meeting those of Class II or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that class. However, within this range, up to 1% weight of bulbs may have cloves with externally visible sprouts.

(iii) Class II: 10 % weight of bulbs may not be up to standards of the class nor the minimum requirements, with the exception of those affected by rotting or damaged by frost or sun, or any other deterioration rendering it unfit for consumption. In addition to this tolerance, up to 5% weight of bulbs may have cloves with externally visible sprouts. 

Size tolerances

For all classes: 10 % weight of bulbs not meeting the requirements regarding size and the size indicated, but matching the size immediately above and/or below that specified. Within this tolerance, up to 3 % of bulbs may have a diameter smaller than the specified minimum but not less than 25 mm. 

Provisions concerning presentation

UniformityThe contents of each package or lot presented in bulk, must be uniform and contain only garlic of the same origin, variety or commercial type, quality and size (if sized). The visible part of the garlic in the package or bulk must rightfully represent the rest of the content.

Packaging: Except for dry garlic presented in strings, which may be transported in bulk, garlic must be packed in such a way so as to protect

its integrity. The materials used inside the package must be new, clean and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce. The use of materials, paper or stamps especially, with trade specifications printed is allowed as long as the printing or labeling has been done with non-toxic ink or glue. Packages, or lots presented in bulk, must be free of all foreign matter.

Presentation:

Garlic must be presented as follows:

(i) loose in the package, with cut stems, the length of the stem not to exceed:

- 10 cm in the case of fresh and semi-dry garlic,

- 3 cm in the case of dry garlic

(ii) in bunches by:

- number of bulbs,

- net weight

The stems must be evened off.

(iii) in the case of dry and semi-dry garlic only, in strings by:

- number of bulbs, there being at least six bulbs per string

- net weight.

In case it is presented in bunches or strings, each package must resemble one another (number of bulbs or net weight).

Neverminding the type of presentation, stems must be cut cleanly, as must the roots in case of dry garlic classified in the "Extra" class.

Provisions concerning marking

Each package must exhibit the following particulars, in letters grouped on the same side, legibly and indelibly marked, and visible from the outside.

For garlic in strings transported in bulk (loaded directly into a vehicle), these particulars must appear on a document accompanying the goods and attached in a visible position inside the transport vehicle.

A. Identification 

Packer) Name and address or and/or) officially issued or

Dispatcher) accepted code mark 

B. Nature of produce

- "Fresh garlic", "semi-dry garlic" or "dry garlic", when the contents are not visible from the outside

- Name of the variety or commercial type

- "Smoked", if applies.

C. Origin of produce

- Country of origin and, not mandatory, district where grown, or national, regional or local place name.

D. Commercial specifications

- Class

- Size (if sized) expressed as minimum and maximum diameters of the bulbs.

Black garlic

Black garlic is obtained through fermentation by heating whole bulbs of fresh garlic at high temperature under controlled humidity for some weeks. During fermentation, the cloves gradually darken to their final black appearance. Black garlic has a soft, sweetish taste.

Garlic powder

It is possible to make garlic powder by grinding dried garlic flakes in a garlic grinding machine into a fine powder. In case you make it thicker, it will become granulated garlic. Garlic powder can also be made in the following

process: garlic separating→garlic peeling→garlic grinding→garlic paste dehydration→garlic drying→garlic powder crushing→garlic powder packing

Garlic powder production line mainly includes the following equipment:

(1). Garlic separating machine: Garlic bulbs are divided into cloves by

going through between rubber rollers a separating machine. With the built-in

draught fan, peels, stem, and cloves are separated mechanically.

(2). Garlic peeling machine: when using a pneumatic type garlic peeling

machine, the outer skin of garlic cloves is removed without any use of water.

(3). Garlic paste making machine: cloves are placed into the grinding machine which grinds the cloves into the paste.

(4). Garlic paste dehydration machine: garlic paste is treated with a centrifugal dewatering machine to remove superficial water.

(5). Garlic drying machine: dehydrated garlic powder is spread evenly on the drying tray and dried in the hot air drying oven at 55℃ for about 6 hours. The end result should be a moisture content of less than 5%.

(6). Garlic powder crushing machine: grinds the dried powder into a fine powder.

(7). Garlic powder packing machine: Garlic powder is packed by an automatic garlic packing machine and stored for sale.

Garlic Flake

Working Process of Garlic Flake Production

garlic separating→garlic peeling→garlic washing→garlic slicing→garlic slice

rinsing→garlic slice dehydration→garlic slice drying→garlic slice grading→garlic slice packing

Garlic flake production line primarily includes the following equipment:

(1). Garlic separating machine: Garlic bulbs are divided into cloves by

going through between rubber rollers a separating machine. With the built-in

draught fan, peels, stem, and cloves are separated mechanically.

(2). Garlic peeling machine: when using a pneumatic type garlic peeling

machine, the outer skin of garlic cloves is removed without any use of water.

(3). Garlic washing machine: cloves are washed to remove foreign matters.

(4). Garlic slicing machine: clean garlic cloves are uniformly sliced to 1.5-2.2mm. The surface of sliced garlic is smooth and without damage.

(5). Garlic rinsing machine: garlic is washed once again in this machine.

(6). Garlic dehydration machine: slices are treated with a centrifugal dewatering machine to remove superficial water.

(7). Garlic drying machine: dried garlic flakes are spread evenly on the drying tray and dried in the hot air drying oven at 65℃ for about 6 hours. The end result should be a moisture content of less than 5%.

(8). Garlic grading machine: dried garlic slices are categorized by garlic grading machine. Those that do not make the cut, are removed.

(9). Garlic packing machine: dried garlic slices are packed by garlic packing machine for safe storage.

General Information

Garlic oil

Garlic oil is mainly obtained by steam distillation obtained from the crushed garlic. The working process is as follows:

Garlic separating→garlic peeling→garlic washing→garlic crushing→fermentation→steam distillation → separation → rening → packing

- First, the bulbs are divided into cloves, and then cloves are peeled. 

- After cleaning and crushing, 2-folds of water are added and the mixture is set to ferment at 55℃ for 3 hours. 

- Then the mixture is subject to steam distillation. The distillate is separated by the oil-water separator to obtain crude oil. 

- The crude oil is refined and packed. This method has the advantages of simple equipment, low cost, and good stability. Vegetable oil is usually added to refined oil to make capsules.

Aged garlic extract

Aged garlic extract is done by extraction and aging of fresh garlic at room temperature for up to 20 months in stainless steel tanks. During this period, harsh unstable compounds, such as allicin in fresh garlic are converted into stable health-promoting substances.

General Information

The quality of garlic is mainly measured by the following aspects:

Should not have visible damage, no clovers should be missing, they should all be normally shaped and all of them should be clean. Size is also important to determine the class of Garlic.


-(i) "Extra" Class: Garlic must be of better quality and characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type.

The bulbs must be:

- untouched

- normally shaped

- properly cleaned

They must have no defects with the exception of very slight superficial stains, taking into account this should not interfere with the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping

quality and presentation in the package. The cloves must be tight. The roots must be cut close to the base of the bulb in the case of dry garlic.


-(ii) Class I: Garlic in this class must be of acceptable quality. They must meet the characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type.

The bulbs must be:

- untouched

- normally shaped

Small flaws, however, may be allowed should these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the conservation capacity and presentation in the package: slight tears in the outer skin of the bulb are accepted. The cloves must be reasonably tight within reason.


(iii) Class II: This class includes garlic that does not meet the standards for inclusion in the higher classes yet manage to satisfy the minimum requirements specified above. The following defects may be allowed as long as the garlic retains its essential characteristics when it comes to quality, the conservation capacity and presentation:

-tears in the outer skin or missing parts of the outer skin of the bulb

-healed injuries

-slight bruises

-irregular shape

-up to three cloves missing


Provisions concerning size

Size class is determined by the maximum diameter of the equatorial section of the garlic:

(i) The minimum diameter is set at 45 mm for garlic in the "Extra" Class and 30 mm for garlic in Classes I and II.

(ii) If garlic is presented loose - without stems - or in bunches, the difference in diameter between the smallest and largest bulb in the same package may not exceed:

- 15 mm when the smallest bulb has a diameter of less than 40 mm.

- 20 mm when the smallest bulb has a diameter equal to or more than 40 mm.

General Information

- It is important to mention that the garlic market behaves like a condiment, and not like a vegetable as generally believed. 

- This market presents an inelastic demand, which means that by increasing the supply, the quantity demanded will remain the same at the same time prices will decrease.

- In other words, a drop in prices do little to increase sales as people do not change their recipes to use more spices when they are cheap. 

- What does it mean? when products like garlic are in over-supply, prices fall dramatically, as consumers do not respond to price changes by buying more.

- When addressing the price of garlic, like most crops, its quality will certainly have an effect on the selling price.

- Rainfall and drought can damage supply, and therefore, also have an impact on that variable.

- Labor costs and logistics expenses are also key components.

Production
Intelligence on global production published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization. We follow the FAO Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated FAO Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
- 0406 Garlic
FAO Code 0406 Garlic
Export
Intelligence on global imports and imports published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN Comtrade: International Trade Statistics Database. We follow the HS Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated HS Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
HS Code 070320 Vegetables, alliaceous; garlic, fresh or chilled
Import
Intelligence on global imports and imports published on Tridge are based on the statistical data provided by UN Comtrade: International Trade Statistics Database. We follow the HS Code scheme of our data source and assign each page with its most closely associated HS Codes.
This page is associated with the following HS Codes:
HS Code 070320 Vegetables, alliaceous; garlic, fresh or chilled

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