Allium sativum (var. sativum) White or artichoke-Violet-Silverskin.
-White garlic: Its teeth have white or yellowish white skin and sometimes has violet stretch marks. It can belong to the group of common or noble kinds of garlic. They are semi-round garlic, they have good conservation, very good gastronomic value, and good nutraceutical properties. Very good pungency and very good aroma.
-Violet garlic: Its teeth skin is light brown or similar tones, the bulb is white with soft violet striations. It belongs to the noble garlic family. They are semi-early garlic. They have poor conservation capacity, but very good gastronomic value. They accompany fish and seafood well.
Allium sativum (var. longicuspis) Red or Rocambole-purple-pink.
-Red garlic: Its teeth have red skin or similar tones, its bulb is white and its neck is hard due to the presence of floral stem; it belongs to the noble garlic group. They are late harvest, have good conservation and good gastronomic and nutraceutical properties. Highly recommended for seasoning red meats, pasta and to make sauces. Very suitable for peeling.
-Purple garlic: Their teeth have light brown skin or similar tones, the bulb has strong purple striations and has a hard neck because it has a floral stem. It belongs to the noble garlic family. They are early harvest garlic, they have poor conservation capacity, regular gastronomic value, and regular nutraceutical properties. It is used in salad dressing mostly.
-Pink garlic: the skin of the teeth, as well as the bulb, presents in pink or related tints, with a hard neck because it has a floral stem. It belongs to the group of common garlic and has poor conservation properties. It is used in salad dressing mostly.
Allium sativum (var. ophioscorodon) Borwn or Continental.
-Brown garlic: Their teeth have brown skin or similar tonnage, their necks are hard due to the presence of floral stem, and belong to the noble garlic group. It is a very late harvest garlic, it has very good conservation and very good gastronomic and nutraceutical properties.
- Traces of the origin of Garlic were found in Turkestan (border between China and Afghanistan and Iran). From there, it was taken to China, India, eastern and northern Europe, and the Mediterranean to the west.
- The movements and excursions of nomadic hunters contributed to the dispersal of Garlic as a result of its qualities to conserve meat and fish, the small size for transportation and the ease of storage.
- It is a perennial plant of the Liliaceae family. They reach up to 1.5 m in height. Its leaves are flat up to 8 mm wide. Its flowers are greenish or whitish, sometimes pink, very little abundance and sometimes nonexistent, which protrude with its long peduncle on a head of bulbils. The bulb (head of garlic) is formed by a white envelope inside which are several small bulbs commonly named "teeth".
- The plant generates a spicy bulb which is the part that is mainly used. This bulb is formed by a variable number of teeth, each covered by a tunic of variable color. The whole bulb is covered, simultaneously, by exterior tunics of a whitish color. In a bulb, which is roundly shaped, there can be between 8-14 teeth and its weight is between 30-100 g
- China is the main garlic producer. Shandong, an eastern coastal province, located to the southwest of Beijing is the main producing region followed by Henan and Jiangsu.
- In 2017 China´s yield reached approximately 271.000 hg/ha.
- The most common species include
Allium sativum (var. sativum)-White or artichoke-Violet-Silverskin.
Allium sativum (var. longicuspis)-Red or Rocambole-purple-pink.
Allium sativum (var. ophioscorodon)-Borwn or Continental.
- Although garlic is fundamentally a condiment (and its demand responds to this aptitude), it is part of popular medicine of many countries of the world, having found records dating more than 6,000 years old.
- Modern science considers it with excellent properties (bacteriostatic,
fungistatic, lipid-lowering, antiplatelet, antioxidants), both for human use,
veterinary or agronomic.