- Onion consider to be one of the oldest cultivated vegetable in history.
In spite of the abundance of archaeological, bio-archaeological, historical and genetic data. botanist and historians are unable to determine exact time and place of their first cultivation (because this vegetable is perishable and its cultivation leaves little to no trace),
but the available data & ancient remnants of food cultivation that survived the tooth of time, show that organized cultivation started much earlier, thousands of years before writing and sophisticated tools were created. Onions were grown in Ancient Egypt 5,500 years ago, in India and China 5,000 years ago, in Sumeria 4,500 years ago.
-Onion are dividing into 2 major groups (Scallions & Spring onion)
-Scallions are divided into (red & gold bulb)
-The flavors and textures of scallions and spring onions are similar, but keep in mind that they have a different intensity of flavors. and have different usage.
Onions are cultivated in fully sun places, plating by fresh seeds for each plantation cycle.
Onion is used as dry bulb or fresh spring onion and using as a pickle.
Species A. cepa
Scientific Name: Allium cepa
1209 : seeds
12099130 : onion
0703: Onions, Shallots, Garlic
07031010 : Onions
0712 Dried Vegetable, Whole, Cut, Sliced, Broken or in powder
Color: With golden brown to brown skin; white, semi translucent flesh.
Diameter of bulb: 20 - 70 mm
wight: 70 - 200 g
Red onions are medium in size, and are round to slightly oval in shape. crisp, and coarse with many layers of white and purple rings. Red onions are crunchy, pungent, sweet, and slightly spicy when raw and when cooked their flavor lessens and grows mildly sweeter.
Red Onions, with their wonderful color, are a good choice for lots of fresh uses or for grilling, charbroiling, and roasting
Color: light brown to dark red
Diameter of bulb: 20 - 70 mm
wight: 70 - 200 g
Scallions,Green Onions, Spring onions different names for same product. They are in fact underage onions, harvested before the bulb has had a chance to swell.
Entire plant, green leafs and the small white bulb are edible,
They have a similar flavor to onions, but are more moderate.
Color: Mid to dark green leaf, white bulb.
Diameter of bulb: 10 mm minimum – 18 mm maximum with 5 mm banding.
Count per bunch 7 minimum (use 2 blue band)
Onion Length 250 mm minimum
Root length: 5 mm minimum – 10 mm maximum
Weight: 115 g minimum
Packed in clear bag (temp must be +1C at the time of packing – Onion must be totally dry)
Normally packed 7 x bag each bag 12 bunch, also box can be pack 4 bag, 5 Bag or 6 bag.
in some places Onion harvested around 9 months per year according to weather factors, soil condition, water availability and sun long day time.
Class I :High quality product
-firm and compact
-free from swelling
-practically free of root tufts; however, for onions harvested before complete
Class II : This class includes onions that do not qualify for inclusion in Class I but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above.
Dried Onion--> Onion varieties with pungent flavor are most appreciated, both colored and white onions may be used. After removing the tops, roots and outer skin, onions are washed carefully then cut at a right angle to the core of the onions. Blanching is not practiced, as the onion loses its flavor. The use of preservatives is not necessary: after cutting, the slices are spread evenly on the trays of a dryer.
The onions are dried when the ratio of prepared raw material to drier product is about 9:1 (moisture content 5%). The dried product may be ground to a powder, which tends to make clumps. The dryer used for onions must be reserved especially for onions.
Minimally processed onions--> These are peeled and/or cut onions for ready to use that retain its freshness, packed in suitable packaging material and stored at refrigerated conditions or frozen conditions.
Onion paste-->Onion is grounded yet retaining its freshness. Preparation of minimally processed onions and onion paste entails optimization of proper preservatives and packaging materials to increase the shelf life of these products
Pickles--> An age old practice to preserve the onions is by means of a process called pickling. Most widely used pickling for onions are vinegar based pickling and oil based pickling. While vinegar based pickling is popular in the United States and Europe, oil based pickling is widely adopted in Asia and Africa.
Onion Oil--> It is another flavouring substance which is widely used in the seasonings of processed products. Onion oil is also used as a natural food preservative in some food products. Onion oil can be extracted by different methods like distillation, solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction etc.
Vinegar/Beverage/Sauce--> As the onions are rich in sugars and other nutrients they can be processed into onion vinegar and onion wine. Onion can also be processed into onion beverage and onion sauce.
- Harvesting, sorting & grading.
- Transportation & Cool chain, to maintain the optimum condition to deliver high-quality products.
- Pesticide traces, the whole plantation, and production cycle have to be controlled to make sure that the final product is safe.
- Onion appearance.
- Onion colour.
- Onion shape.
- Onion flavor and texture.
- Onion maturity.
- Insects and disease damage.
- physical damage.
-Refrigerated storage cost
-Labour cost and packing materials
-Input costs: labour, mechanisation, fertiliser, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, fuel and electricity
- Yield quantity
- Onion exporter union.
- Price of the goods/products on the market
- Technological factors
- Climate condition.
- Storage possibilities.