For black pepper, the processing is mainly manual with some degree of automation. Processing is referred to as the following process after harvesting raw pepper berries
Black peppercorn essentially harvests depending on regionality, but the usual high season of black peppercorn for countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brazil is from July to September. Meanwhile, for other countries such as India, black peppercorn is mostly harvested around November until March. As for Sri Lanka, the harvesting season is mostly around April until July, then it will continue again in December until January. While Vietnam was the first leading exporter of black peppercorn in 2019, experiencing the high season from January to May.
1. Tellicherry Black Pepper
- Big round size
- Pungent aroma
- Grown in Malabar coast in Kerala state
2. Malabar Black Pepper
- Smaller than Tellicherry
- Less pungent aroma
- Greenish hue in color appearance
Tellicherry and Malabar peppers come from the same vine trees and production areas. Tellicherry is larger and has a fuller flavor and pungent aroma as it is kept on the vine longer than Malabar pepper
3. Light Berries Black Pepper
- Small in size
- Light black or brown color
- Grown in southern India and Andaman and Nicobar islands
Most common varieties:
1. Lada Belantoeng
2. An Do
3. Vinh Linh
4. Loc Ninh
Pepper harvesting is concentrated primarily in 6 provinces - Binh Phuoc with, Dak Nong, Dak Lak, Ba Ria-Vung, Dong Nai, and Gia Lai. The provinces in the Central Highlands and the Southeastern regions are the largest in terms of area and productivity. There are also other pepper-growing areas in Phu Quoc and Kien Giang and Quang Tri.
Brazilian black pepper is considered to be amongst the high-quality black peppers along with India and Vietnam is grown mainly in 2 regions; Para in the Amazonia region and Espirito Santo. The variety is called Belem.
Vietnam, Brazil, and Indonesia were the top exporters of black peppercorn in 2019 among others. Vietnam had an export value of USD 580.19M with an export quantity around 237.27K MT, followed by Brazil with an export value of USD 183.06M and export quantity around 85.41K MT, and for the third spot as a leading exporter, Indonesia had an export value of USD 142.74M and quantity around 220.52 MT.
Sri Lanka and India were the top four and five exporters. With Sri Lanka’s export value of USD 47.08M and export quantity around 7.39K MT, followed by India with an export value of USD 41.47M and quantity around 8.61K MT.
The United States, China, and Germany were the top importers of black peppercorns in 2019 among others. The United States’s import value of USD 188.96M with import quantity around 64.18K MT, followed by China with an import value of USD 154.10M and import quantity around 57.62K MT, and for the third spot as a leading importer, it was Germany with an import value of USD 103.05M and quantity around 32.41K MT
India and Vietnam were the top four and five importers. With India’s import value of USD 101.11M and import quantity around 32.10K MT, followed by Vietnam’s import value of USD 65.93M and quantity around 18.30K MT.
The bags should be completely dry and kept in places free of insects and moisture
All packaging must be hermetically sealed to avoid loss in the mass or modifications in the moisture content. The vacuum packaging improves the conservation of the quality of the dehydrated pepper.