A co-op (cooperatives) is a group of farmers who want to export directly but still need a packing house for market demand stability.
There is a strong bond between mangosteen suppliers because most have been in the business long term. However, there is no oligopoly in the supply chain despite the strong connection. Around 33 listed packing houses for mangosteen in Indonesia are approved to export to China.
The trading process is like this:
Mangosteen buyers have to visit a farm and negotiate the price before the mangosteen season begins.
1. Chinese buyers usually visit the farm and packing house to pay deposits and negotiate the price before the peak season.
2. Farms provide production volume updates to the buyers weekly.
3. The balance is due upon arrival for regular buyers.
4. Mangosteen is packed up to 7 days after harvest, and the level of ripening depends on the destination country and market.
West Java, East Java, Central Java, Bali, Sumatra. Java Island is relatively more stable in its climate because it is near the equator. The peak mangosteen harvest season is during the wet season. Indonesian mangosteen's production level and export volume are the highest from January to March. Although mangosteen from Indonesia does not face direct competition with mangosteen from Thailand, the world's largest mangosteen supplier, there is little competition from April to August (high season of Thai mangosteen).
According to a study from the Australian Ministry of Agriculture, the main varieties of commercially grown Indonesian mangosteen include: Wanayasa, Puspahiang, and Bogor Raya. Other varieties mentioned include: Kaligesing, Lingsar, and Malinar.
The first three differ slightly in shape, color, flesh color, and taste.
The standard Export procedures to China
Fruit must come from registered plantation that have been registered with Barantan (Indonesia Quatantine) and GACC (China Quarantine Authority). Registration gardens are gardens that have implemented Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and registered by the local and Regional Government authorities Directorate General of Horticulture, Ministry of Agriculture
Fruit must be processed for export to China at the registration packaging house and by exporters that have registered with Barantan and GACC. A registered packing house is a packing house that has been registered by the Authority Central (OKKPP)/Regional Food Safety Competent (OKKPD) and has been verified Barantan's feasibility in exporting fruit to China is appropriate Export Protocol requirements
The process that must be carried out at the registered packaging house, including sorting, grading and cleaning fruit, both with brushing or spraying with compressed air to meet the standard in China market
Standard Export Protocol requirements:
- not rotten and not cracked/broken,
- free from all types of plant pest organisms (OPT) targeted by China, including fruit flies, mealybugs, ants, and mites,
- free from soil, plant residues (roots, stems, twigs), weeds and dirt other.
The packaging and labeling process must also be carried out at the registered packaging house and in accordance with the Export Protocol requirements regarding packaging and labels on the packaging
- The fruit packaging must be new and clean.
- the label on the packaging must include information in accordance with the Protocol requirements Exports, including garden registration numbers (salak fruit) and/or packaging houses which have been approved by GACC along with the address and name of the packing house
Plant quarantine inspection for the purposes of issuing a Health Certificate Plants (Phytosanitary Certificate, PC) must be carried out by the Quarantine Official Plants in registered container houses that have been registered with Barantan and GACC.
Plant quarantine checks are carried out to ensure all Export Protocol requirements are met, including:
- inspection of delivered goods (minimum sampling of 2% of the total delivery goods) to ensure that the fruit to be sent is not rotten/not
cracked, free from all types of target plant pest organisms (OPT) in China, including fruit flies, mealybugs, ants, and mites, and is free from
soil, plant residues (roots, stems, twigs), weeds and other debris;
- checking the suitability and traceability of fruit sources from existing gardens
- checking the effectiveness of fruit sorting, grading and cleaning activities as well
packaging and storage of fruit ready for export according to Protocol requirements Export; And
- checking the suitability of the packaging for use and the identity of the label on each packaging according to Export Protocol requirements
Issuance of a Plant Health Certificate (Phytosanitary Certificate, PC) only can be carried out on consignments that have fulfilled all requirements the above export requirements.
Indonesian mangosteen packaging houses should get a referral from the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture and Trade based on their exports/trade and must pass requirements from the Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China (AQSIQ). The packing houses should be free of plant pest organisms such as fruit flies, mealybugs, scale insects, etc.
First, harvested mangosteen are sorted and graded in three categories: Super I, Super II and Super III, with the former having the highest quality (stalk is fresh green, skin with no bruises).
After that, there is individual cleaning with air pressure and brushing. The fruit is sorted again but by weight. The fruit is then packed and stored in cold rooms.
The Indonesian Agricultural Quarantine Agency then inspects if the fruit meets the requirements of importers, and issue a phytosanitary certificate if approved.
Other than the standard export document such as, Bill of Lading (BL), Commercial Invoice & Packing list document, and COO, exporter of the mangosteen must also provide:
1. Phytosanitary Certificate (PC) issued by the Agricultural Quarantine Agency, issued through a designated place of release;
2. Reported and submitted to the Plant Quarantine Officer at the place of release for the purposes of plant quarantine measures
3. Treatment certificate or Fumigation Certificate (if required by the destination country);
4. Packing declaration (for wooden packaging);
5. Other document requested or required by the importer or importing country
The standard quality of mangosteen
In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, the mangosteen must be:
- pedicel intact and with or without calyx;
- sound, produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded;
- clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter;
- practically free of pests affecting the general appearance of the produce;
- practically free of damage caused by pests except netted skin fruit;
- free of abnormal external moisture, excluding condensation following removal from cold storage;
- free of any foreign smell and/or taste1
- fresh in appearance, have a shape, colour and taste characteristic of the; species;
- free of pronounced blemishes; and
- practically easy to be cut open.
2.1.1 The development and condition of the mangosteen must be such as to enable them:
- to ensure the continuation of the ripening process until they reach the appropriate degree of ripeness (the skin should be at least pink in colour
at time of harvest);
- to withstand transport and handling; and
- to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination
Mangosteens are classified in three classes defined below:
Mangosteen in this class must be of superior quality. It must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. It must be practically free of defects, with the exception of slight superficial defects such as bruising, scratches or other mechanical damage, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
The total area affected shall not exceed 10% of the total surface
Yellowish latex stains on the fruit surface shall not exceed 5% by number or weight of the delivered lot.
Mangosteen in this class must be of good quality. It must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. The following defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package:
- slight defects in shape;
- slight defects on the peel such as bruising, scratches or other
mechanical damage. The total area affected shall not exceed 30% of the total surface
Yellowish latex stains on the fruit surface shall not exceed 10% by number or weight of the delivered lot.
This class includes mangosteen which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements. The following may be allowed, provided the mangosteen retains their essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation:
- defects in shape;
- defects on the peel such as bruising, scratches or other mechanical damage. The total area affected shall not exceed 30% of the total
Yellowish latex stains on the fruit surface shall not exceed 20% by number or weight of the delivered lot.
Size is determined by the weight or the diameter of the equatorial section of the fruit, in accordance with the following table:
The main competitor of Indonesian mangosteen is Thai mangosteen. Thailand is a major competitor because Thailand is the largest mangosteen supplier. Still, there is no direct competition because Indonesian mangosteen and Thai mangosteen have different seasonalities.