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Turkey Hazelnut Guide

Country Specific
Oct 21, 2021
Edited by
Roy Park
HS Code: 080222 - Nuts, edible; hazelnuts or filberts (corylus spp.), fresh or dried, shelled
|
FAO Code: 0225 - Hazelnuts, with shell
Share in Export
2020
≈ 59.31%Rank 1
Share in Import
2020
≈ 0.54%Rank 21
Share in Production
2020
-
Export Volume
2020
1.12BUSD
1Y ≈ -10.82%
Import Volume
2020
10.47MUSD
1Y ≈ -16.57%

Key varieties

What are the common varieties of hazelnut?

a. Common Hazel or Corylus avellana

The common hazel is a small tree, native to Europe and Western Asia. It is characterized by multiple stems, and the younger stems are usually bronze in color, while the mature stems are brown. The buds are oval-shaped and green in color. The nuts of the common hazel can be oval or spherical in shape, and they can be about 12 to 20 mm broad and 15 to 20 mm long.

b. Filbert or Corylus maxima

The filbert looks quite similar to the common hazelnut. It is classified as a deciduous shrub and is native to Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia. The tree typically reaches a height of about 6 to 10 m. The leaves are almost round with a double-serrated margin, just like the leaves of the common hazel. The filbert can be distinguished from the common hazel by its fully-enclosed nuts and long involucres.


Varieties can be gathered in three groups, belonging to the three following subspecies:

1. Corylus avellana racemosa Lam.: Hazelnuts grouped in clusters, round and very voluminous, often netted. ‘Santa Maria de Jesús", ‘San Juan", ‘San Nicolás", and ‘San Cono’.

2. Corylus avellana glandulosa Lin.: Hazelnut with acorn shape, variable size, with a cone shape of the narrower base and acuminate apex. Not a very hard shell. ‘Ghiannusa, ‘Cannellina, ‘Minnulara, ‘Panuttara, Baccilara, ‘Muddisi, ‘Piattiddara, common hazel, ordinary hazel, hazel of Spain, etc.

3. Corylus avellana Máxima Lam.: Spheric or round shape, bulky or medium fruit, hard shell. Commonly known as Napolitano hazel. ‘Badara ubertosa, ‘Cerro, ‘Pigra, ‘Privitera, ‘Balzanotto, ‘San Giorgio, ‘Reganati, ‘Rizo, ‘San Elmo, hazel of England, netted hazel, etc.



Sources:

Hazelnut tree identification

Types varieties hazelnut

Turkey
Hazelnut Kernel

Production Quality

What are the factors that determine the quality of hazelnut?

According to the International Nut and Dried Fruit Council (INC), international regulations have been established to control the chemical, microbiological, pesticide, and contaminant content of hazelnuts. These regulations oversee the quality of the form of the nuts, chemical parameters, pesticides, contaminants, and quality assurance programs.


1. Quality of the Form

In-Shell

  • Whole

- Dried

- Sound

- Free from visible mold filaments

- Free from living pests

- Free from damage caused by pests (including their presence, debris or excreta)

- Free from abnormal external moisture

- Free from foreign smell and/or taste

  • Shell

- Intact (slight superficial damage is not considered a defect)

- Clean (adhering husk ≤ 5% of the total shell surface)

- Free from blemishes, areas of discoloration or spread stains (≤ 20% of the surface of the shell)

- Well-formed

  • Kernel

- Free from rancidity

- Sufficiently developed (fill at least 50% of the shell cavity)

- Not desiccated (< 25% of the surface of the kernel)

- Free from blemishes, areas of discoloration or spread stains (< 25% of the surface of the kernel)

- Well-formed


Kernels

- Intact (scraping < 3 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm in depth shall not be considered as a defect)

- Sound

- Clean (practically free of foreign matter)

- Sufficiently developed (desiccated, dried out or tough portions < 50% of the kernel)

- Free from blemishes, areas of discoloration or spread stains (< 25% of the surface of the shell)

- Free from living pests

- Free from damage caused by pests (including their presence, debris or excreta. However, pest damage caused by cimiciato is allowed, provided that there is only one pot on the kernel < 3 mm in diameter and in depth)

- Free from visible mold filaments

- Free from rancidity

- Free of abnormal external moisture

- Free of foreign smell and/or taste


2. Chemical Parameters

The chemical parameters are based on moisture, free fatty acids, and peroxide value, which are listed in the following table:




3. Pesticides

The use of chemicals is carefully regulated and so they must be used responsibly. Producers should be aware of all rules regarding the products they use and the maximum residue limits in the destination market.


4. Contaminants

The contaminants factor refers to the level of aflatoxins in the hazelnut, which varies by country.




5. Quality Assurance Programs

The following programs are endorsed by the industry:

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), which provide growers guidelines and principles to apply to on-farm production and postproduction processes, to provide safe and healthy nuts, minimizing potential hazards, such as pathogens, contaminants and pest management materials.

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), which define procedures to be used in the processing, packaging, storing and transport stages by handlers to ensure the quality of the product. GMP are used by handlers to treat hazelnuts under the best sanitary conditions.

Good Storage Practices (GSP), which provide procedures that should be in place in the post-harvest, processing and transport stages by handlers to control the moisture content and temperature and to minimize the levels of fungi (especially aflatoxins) and insects.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), which provides a systematic preventive approach to food safety that identifies, assesses and controls the risk of biological, chemical and physical hazards in production processes.


Source:

Hazelnut Technical Information Kit

Turkey
Hazelnut Kernel
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