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Thai Mango Guide

Country Specific
Oct 18, 2021
Edited by
Hyesun Jang
HS Code: 080450 - Fruit, edible; guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried
|
FAO Code: 0571 - Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas
Share in Export
2020
15.25%Rank 1
Share in Import
2020
≈ 0.27%Rank 33
Share in Production
2019
100%Rank -
Export Volume
2020
570.65MUSD
1Y -8.74%
Import Volume
2020
10.49MUSD
1Y +20.39%

Key varieties

How are mangoes classified?

Mangoes are classified according to their general appearance, quality, and condition:

Extra Class

  • Mangoes are of superior quality and have the characteristics of variety.
  • Mature, clean, well-trimmed, well-formed, smooth, and free from pre-harvest defects associated with insects, diseases, and handling.
  • With exception of very slight superficial defects, provided that these defects do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.

Class I

  • Mangoes are of good quality and have the characteristics of variety.
  • Mature, clean, well-trimmed, well-formed, smooth, and free from pre-harvest defects associated with insects, diseases, and handling.
  • With exception of very slight superficial defects, provided that these defects do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.

Class II

  • Mangoes do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes but satisfy the requirement of Class II.
  • Mature, fairly clean, well-trimmed, fairly well-formed, smooth, and free from diseases, insects, infestation, and any damage that materially affects the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.
Thailand
Fresh Mango

What are the varieties mainly produced?

Nam Dok Mai, Mahachanok

Thailand
Fresh Mango

Production Value Chain

How are mangoes harvested?

Mangoes are handpicked up to 4 times during the harvest season. The fruit is harvested at the so-called mature-green stage (before ripeness). Mature mangoes will ripen after being picked during the handling and distribution period. Mango stems release latex or ’milk’ which can cause burn damages on the skin of the mangoes. Some producers use special grids or molds to allow the latex to drip while others choose to wash the fruit after harvest in a special solution to prevent latex burn. Mangoes are sorted in the orchard, according to classes 1 to 3. Class 3 fruit in particular is separated from the rest due to its skin damage. Class 1 and 2 fruit are sorted in the packing shed according to their size, shape, skin appearance, and damage, and then packed into different weights of cartons.

Thailand
Fresh Mango

How is the Thai mango supply chain formed?

Producers/Farms -> Packhouse -> Storage/Logistics Company-> Consumer


Thai mangoes are grown by producers and sent to packinghouses which are put in storage or sent to a logistics company that puts the mangoes into warehouses and are exported. The packinghouse could export directly, or have a logistics company in between. There are cases of packinghouses owning the farm, which means they are able to procure the goods at a cheaper price and sell it at a cheaper price, but normally they will buy from another supplier.

The packinghouse has one of the most powerful roles within the supply chain as there are not many suppliers who can export their goods. Sorting is also required in order to export, leaving the packinghouse to have a stronger role than other players. 

Thailand
Fresh Mango

Export process

How are supplier agreements for mangoes structured?

Contracts between supplier and recipient are fairly simple for fresh mango products. The agreement is often based on a campaign schedule setting out the desired quantities, the breakdown by variety, size, and other product details. The merchandise can either be purchased prepaid or partly paid for upon loading with the remainder settled after acceptance of the fruit. As for processed products, contracts are most often based on prepaid sales but tied to world rates. Processed mangoes are more prone to price fluctuations which can result in long-term price negotiations. However, this can be revised depending on the availability and competition of other products, especially for purees and juices.

Thailand
Fresh Mango

How is the export process?

 Purchase order comes out -> supplier checks the money received -> mangoes are collected-> packinghouse purchases the mangoes from supplier -> packinghouse sorts the mangoes according to size -> Mangoes are sent to steam factory -> mangoes are cooled -> mangoes are exported on the day of steaming, or sent after through the air or sea freight depending on location

The smallest size for mangoes is 250 grams, with the biggest being 500 grams. The favored mango sizes depend on the destination country, for example, in South Korea mango sizes of 200-300 grams are the most prevalent. For mangoes going into Hong Kong and Taiwan, bigger sizes are more preferred, from 400-500 grams. Steaming the mangoes is required in some key export countries, and this is done in order to prevent fruit flies. In order to prevent mangoes from being too ripe at arrival, steaming is done when mangoes are unripe, or at their green state, as steaming quickens the ripening process.

At the current moment, due to sea transit taking much longer than usual due to logistical clogs, air freight is much more commonly used. 


*Required Documents: Bill of Landing (BL), Certificate of Origin (CO), Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Health Certificate (EU Countries)

Thailand
Fresh Mango

Issues & Entry barriers

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