Mangoes are classified by the general appearance, quality, and condition:
Mangoes have superior quality and must be characteristic of the variety.
Except for very slight superficial defects, these defects do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.
Mangoes have the best flavor when they ripen on the tree rather than when they are prematurely picked.
The common types of Thai mango are nam dok mai and mahachanok mangoes. Nam dok mai mangoes are elongated, sharp, and big. Mahachanok mangoes are elongated, curved, and usually weigh from 250g to 370g.
During the mango harvest, mangoes can be handpicked up to 4 times. The fruit is harvested at its mature-green stage (before ripeness). Mature mangoes will ripen after picking during the handling and distribution. The mango stems release latex or "milk," which can cause skin burn damages on mangoes. Some producers use special grids or molds to allow the latex to drip, while other producers choose to wash the fruit after harvest in a solution that prevents latex burn. Mangoes are sorted in the orchard according to their class (Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3). Class 3 mangoes are separated from other types due to their skin damage. Class 1 and Class 2 mangoes are sorted in the packing shed according to their size, shape, skin appearance, and damage before they are packed into different weights of cartons.
Producer/Farm -> Packing house -> Storage/Logistics Company-> Consumer
Thai mango producers send mangoes to packing houses, where mangoes are stored or sent to logistic companies that store mangoes in warehouses before export. Packing houses can export directly or export through logistic companies. In some cases, packing houses can procure cheaper mangoes because they own mango farms, but packing houses usually purchase mangoes from suppliers.
The packing house has a significant influence on the supply chain because not many suppliers can export mangoes. Furthermore, packing houses have more impact because sorting occurs in the packing house (sorting is a procedure when exporting mangoes).
Contracts between suppliers and buyers are relatively simple for fresh mangoes. The contract is often based on a production quantity timeline, variety breakdown, size, and other product details. The buyers can purchase the mangoes in advance (prepaid) or partially paid for upon loading, settling the remainder after delivery. Contracts are often based on prepaid sales for processed mango products but are tied to world rates. Processed mangoes are more prone to price fluctuations, resulting in long-term negotiations. However, this can be revised depending on the availability and competition of other products, especially for purees and juices.
Mango mass ranges from 250g (small) to 500g (big). The size preference of mango depends on the buyer country. For example, in South Korea, consumers favor smaller mangoes ranging from 200g to 300g. On the other hand, size preference in Hong Kong and Taiwan is larger, and mangoes range from 400g to 500g. Key export destinations require mango steaming to prevent fruit flies. Green stage mangoes (unripe mangoes) are steamed to avoid mangoes from being over-ripe (steaming speeds the ripening process).
In 2021, due to severe port congestion, mangoes were transported by air more commonly.
*Required Documents: Bill of Lading (BL), Certificate of Origin (CO), Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Health Certificate (EU Countries)