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Product General

Mango Guide

Oct 21, 2021
Edited by
Hyesun Jang
HS Code: 080450 - Fruit, edible; guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried
FAO Code: 0571 - Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas
Top Exporter
TH flagThailand
Top Importer
CN flagChina
Top Producer
IN flagIndia
Export Value
1Y +10.06%
Import Value
1Y +0.56%

Customs & Tariffs

How are the Tariff Regime / FTA Status for Major Destination Countries?

For China, the applied Tariff rate is 0% due to the Preferential tariff for ASEAN countries, and MFN duties are applied at 15%. 25% of MFN duties are applied to exports to Vietnam, but due to AANZFTA and ASEAN, the preferential tariff is 0%. In the case of South Korea, MFN duties are 30%, higher than in the previous two countries and 24% of preferential tariff for ASEAN member countries is applied to the Korean market. 


  • Trade Agreement Information - FTA, ASEAN-China

  • In force: 2005-07-01

  • Type: Free trade agreement

  • Member States: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao, People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam

  • Scope: Plurilateral, Country-Group


  • Trade Agreement Information: AANZFTA
  • In force: 2010-01-01
  • Type: Free trade agreement
  • Member States: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
  • Scope: Plurilateral, Country-Group

  • Trade Agreement Information - FTA, ASEAN
  • In force: 2007-06-01
  • Type: Free trade agreement
  • Member States: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao, People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
  • Scope: Plurilateral, Country-Group


  • Trade Agreement Information: CECA, ASEAN-KOREA
  • In force: 2007-06-01
  • Type: Free trade agreement
  • Member States: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Korea, Republic of, Lao, People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
  • Scope: Plurilateral, Country-Group

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Production Supply Chain

How Is Thai Mango Harvested?

During the mango harvest, mangoes can be handpicked up to 4 times. The fruit is harvested at its mature-green stage (before ripeness). Mature mangoes will ripen after picking during the handling and distribution. The mango stems release latex or "milk," which can cause skin burn damages on mangoes. Some producers use special grids or molds to allow the latex to drip, while other producers choose to wash the fruit after harvest in a solution that prevents latex burn. Mangoes are sorted in the orchard according to their class (Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3). Class 3 mangoes are separated from other types due to their skin damage. Class 1 and Class 2 mangoes are sorted in the packing shed according to their size, shape, skin appearance, and damage before they are packed into different weights of cartons. 

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What is the production trend for mangoes in Thailand?

Thai mango production has been experiencing declines since 2015 and had a dip in 2017-2018, which continued until 2019. 

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How Is the Peruvian Mango Supply Chain Formed?

Peru has more than 130 producers/exporters of mangoes distributed along the northern coast of Peru at Casma, Olmos, and Chulucanas Valleys. Camposol as in several produced and exported fruits is the main exporter of mangoes in Peru with its 24.9M USD representing 39% of the share of the market, almost by half we find Sunshine Export with 11.9M USD being 19% of the share, third and close we have Asia Farms with 10.7M USD with 17% of the share, other important exporters we find are Dominus, Golden fresh, Tropical Fruit, Frutas de Piura, between others.

Farmers -> Packhouses -> Exporters

Most of the time, farmers export directly themselves wherein they bring the mangoes to the packinghouses which are then exported under their (exporter’s) name. In times when exporters have partner farms, they direct the farmers to grow the crops in a certain way to meet certain production specifications. There are only few exporting companies that source from small farmers and they are usually the big exporters. Other times, large packinghouses have their own farms for which they can do everything in-house. Usually, the fruit is picked when the order comes in. Generally, for the 2021 season, the crops from Piura were not as good wherein the lack of rainfall resulted to smaller mangoes. On the other hand, mangoes from Casma are expected to be of larger size and of better quality. 

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Seasonality of Main Producing Regions

Where Are the Main Producing Regions of Mexican Mangoes?

Mango cultivation in Mexico takes place in the Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, South, North, and part of the Pacific Coast of the country; however, the main commercial producing states are Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz.

In 2021, Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca produce around 22% of the total national production, while Sinaloa and Baja California Sur produce 34.51% of the total national production.

Sinaloa produced 398 thousand mt, Guerrero 390 thousand mt, Nayarit 322 thousand mt, and Chiapas 268 thousand mt.

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Where Are the Main Producing Regions for Mangoes in Peru?

The dry tropics of Northern Peru allow the production of fruit of characteristics of color and flavor unbeatable without the health problems generated by tropical rains. These characteristics promote the obtaining of a mango exquisite and well-accepted both locally and internationally. 90% of the fruit leaves the port of Paita in Piura, where precisely 76.37% of the Peruvian production is handled.

The rest is grown in Lambayeque (16.9%) and in Ancash (6.71%), in the Casma Valleys. 

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What Are the Common Types of Mexican Mango?

The main mango varieties in Mexico are Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, Haden, Manila, and Keith. Below is a description of commonly produced mango varieties in the world: 
  • Honey (Ataulfo): The flavor profile of honey mangoes is sweet and sour with tropical fruit notes. Honey mangoes have a very small seed, so there is a high flesh-to-seed ratio. The color is vibrant yellow and the shape is small and flattened like an oblong shape. The primary sourcing countries are Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and Brazil, and peak availability is from March to July.
  • Francis: The flavor profile of Francis is sweet and fruity. Francis mangoes grow on small farms throughout Haiti and are also sourced from Ecuador. The Francis variety is bright yellow in color with green overtones. They are oblong-shaped and peak in availability between May to June.
  • Haden: The Haden mango is sweet and sour with a slight, bitter aftertaste of tropical fruit. The flesh is firm due to the fine fibers and the variety comes in medium to large sizes. The primary sourcing countries include Mexico, Ecuador, and Peru, and peak availability is from March to May.
  • Keitt: The Keitt mango is sweet and fruity with notes of citrus. Keitt mangoes are popular in Asian culture, where they are enjoyed in their mature-green stage. This variety is primarily sourced from Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil, and the U.S., peaking in availability between March to April as well as August to September.
  • Kent: Kent mangoes are sweet with hints of sour notes and are characteristic for their peach and tropical aroma. The Kent variety originated in Florida in the 1940s and is ideal for juicing and/or drying. Ripening cues of the Kent include yellow undertones or dots that cover more of the mango over time.
  • Tommy Atkins: Tommy Atkins is tart with sweet, tropical, and citrus flavors originating from Florida. The Tommy Atkins is the most widely grown commercial type coming into the U.S. This variety is known for its dark red blush hue and oblong shape. They are primarily sourced in Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, and Guatemala while peaking in availability between March and July. 
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Trade Overview

Is Peru a top world player of mango?

Peru is the number three mango exporter in the world, with 10.9% of the share of the market it exports 216.5M USD next to Mexico as number one with 430.37M USD (21.67% SM) and Brazil with 262.19M USD (13.2% SM).

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Which countries are main importers?

The predominant market is Europe and the US, with various countries in Europe demanding different standards. 

Netherlands: +13.2% YoY (2020), +128.5% (2011-2021)

The import quantity of mangoes has increased by 50% over a 5-year period (2016-2020). As the Netherlands is considered to be the gateway to the EU, it might also be more productive to target the rest of Europe. The market consists heavily of Peruvian and Brazilian mangoes

US: +27% YoY (2021)

While the US is the second-largest export market for Peru and has shown a YoY increase of 27%, the expert we have contacted has informed us that the main market of export in his opinion is the US, much more so than Europe. There is competition with Mexico, especially due to lower freight costs. Prices for the last season on the East coast were at USD 3-5 per box, and the West coast USD 5.50 – 9 per box.

Other Eurpean Markets: 

Mangoes traded in the Netherlands and Spain mainly go to Germany, the UK, France, and Portugal. French and Portuguese consumers place high value in the taste, while consumers in Germany and the United Kingdom uphold the highest standards in terms of certification.

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Which Are the Main Imnporters of Mexican Mangoes?

The top destinations are the US and Canada, while the most attractive markets are Japan and Korea. 

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Local Logistics

How Are Local Logistics Structured in Mexico for Mangoes?

Local transportation is well-established. However, because Chiapas, the main production region, is 10 hours from the port of Veracruz, the transportation cost is high. The port is around 5-6 hours away from other production regions. 

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What are the Main Logistics for Peruvian Mango Exports?

Maritime transport in Peru is becoming increasingly important in all types of international merchandise trade operations and also in the case of mango exports. 

Fluvial and lake ports of Peru so that you fully understand how important they are, for example, in terms of exports, among many other possibilities.

The port of Callao

Surely the first of the seaports of Peru is Callao. It is the one that receives the greatest volume of traffic in the entire country and also the one with the greatest operational storage capacity for merchandise throughout the Peruvian territory. One of the main advantages of the port of Callao, compared to other Peruvian seaports, is its geographical location. Specifically, it is located in the country's capital city, Lima, and is frequently used to ship very heavy goods.

The Port of Paita

The second of the seaports of Peru in terms of merchandise transit is probably that of Paita. It is one of the ports with the greatest impact for the transit of all types of containers, only surpassed by the port of Callao. It has a great geographical location as it is located in a northern area of ​​Peru, such as Piura.

The Port of Salaverry

Among our list of the main seaports in Peru, Salaverry could not be missing. It presents an enormous particularity, which often goes unnoticed on numerous occasions, this port has a breakwater that exceeds 600 meters in length and is intended to reduce the impact of the waves.

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Regulations in Exporting Country

How Are Contracts Structured for Thai Mango?

Contracts between suppliers and buyers are relatively simple for fresh mangoes. The contract is often based on a production quantity timeline, variety breakdown, size, and other product details. The buyers can purchase the mangoes in advance (prepaid) or partially paid for upon loading, settling the remainder after delivery. Contracts are often based on prepaid sales for processed mango products but are tied to world rates. Processed mangoes are more prone to price fluctuations, resulting in long-term negotiations. However, this can be revised depending on the availability and competition of other products, especially for purees and juices.

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How Is the Export Process of Mexican Mangoes?

Export process: Getting ready the PO according to buyer’s needs in terms of volume, size, and quality-> Internal and external quality inspections -> Prepare required documents such as Commercial Invoice, Quality Certificates, Bill of Lading, Certificate of Origin, Packing List, Exports Declaration, Goods’ and Container Insurance, Logistics Processes and Customs Processes.

Deal payment: FOB (Free on Board) and FCA (Free Carrier) are mainly used. However, sometimes, the deals are done in CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) and CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To).

The documents required for exporting include Tax ID (RFC), Trademark or proof of authorization to use the commercial name, Bar code acquired from AMECE, and the certificates required by the Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) of the Ministry of Health.

Export Documents Required:

Tax ID (RFC) of the company or person who is exporting

Trademark or proof of authorization to use the commercial name

Bar code acquired from Mexican Association of Standards for Electronic Commerce (AMECE)

Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) of the Ministry of Health (SSA) issues the following certificates:

Free Export Certificate

Export Certificate

Certificate for export of conformity of good sanitary practices

Certificate for export of conformity with product analysis

Export authorization from the Ministry of Trade

The documents that prove to comply with non-tariff barriers

Commercial invoice

Packing list

Certificate of Origin

Phytosanitary Certificates from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality)

Exports Declaration

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What Is the Exporting Process for Thai Mango?

Exporting Process:

  1. Purchase order submitted
  2. Payment verified by the supplier
  3. Mangoes harvested
  4. Mangoes purchased by packing house
  5. Mangoes sorted
  6. Mangoes transported to a steam factory
  7. Mangoes cooled
  8. Mangoes shipped on the day of steaming or sent after by air or sea (depends on destination)

Mango mass ranges from 250g (small) to 500g (big). The size preference of mango depends on the buyer country. For example, in South Korea, consumers favor smaller mangoes ranging from 200g to 300g. On the other hand, size preference in Hong Kong and Taiwan is larger, and mangoes range from 400g to 500g. Key export destinations require mango steaming to prevent fruit flies. Green stage mangoes (unripe mangoes) are steamed to avoid mangoes from being over-ripe (steaming speeds the ripening process).

In 2021, due to severe port congestion, mangoes were transported by air more commonly.

*Required Documents: Bill of Lading (BL), Certificate of Origin (CO), Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Health Certificate (EU Countries)

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Required Documents

Which Are the Required Documents Needed to Export Mexican Mango?

Below is the list of documents required for export:

  • Tax ID (RFC) of the company or person who is exporting
  • Trademark or proof of authorization to use the commercial name
  • Bar code acquired from the Mexican Association of Standards for Electronic Commerce (AMECE)
  • The Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) of the Ministry of Health (SSA) issues the following certificates:

         1. Free Export Certificate

         2. Export Certificate

         3. Certificate for export of conformity to good sanitary practices

         4. Certificate for export of conformity with product analysis

  • Export authorization from the Ministry of Trade
  • The documents that prove to comply with non-tariff barriers
  • Commercial invoice
  • Packing list
  • Certificate of Origin
  • Phytosanitary Certificates from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality)
  • Exports Declaration
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What Are the Main Regulations Required by Importing Countries for Peruvian Mangoes?

For the Chinese, Korean, and US markets, the market is more stringent, where they require a hydrothermal treatment, whereas the mangoes require a hot water treatment. Many suppliers prefer to send to the EU as they do not require the treatment. The main aspect they look for is the presence of fruit flies.

For the EU Phytosanitary and the certificate of origin is required for exporting for the EU.

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What Are the Export Regulations for Spanish Mangoes?

-MRL standards: default of 0.01/kg. Other EU countries have MRL standards lower than the standards set by the EU.

-Phytosanitary certificate for Fruit Flies: Mangoes are highly susceptible to fruit flies. Traces of infestation can lead to export bans.

-Quality Standards: Almost exclusively, class 1 mangoes are the only ones allowed. 

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Quality Control/Certification

How Is the Quality Check Process for Peruvian Mangoes?

An official certificate from SENASA(National service of agrarian sanity of Peru) is necessary to export the mangoes.

-SENASA supervises the whole inspection process from visiting the farms, entering the packinghouses, and finishing packing.

-SENASA seals the product after the inspection process and issues the phytosanitary certificate.

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What Are Quality Related Issues?

Most common quality related issues are regarding product development and remnants of agrosupplies such as pesticides, fungicides, fertilizers, and vitamins. Problems also arise on post harvest handling. 

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What Is the Quality Check Process for Mexican Mangoes?

General quality check processes are incorporated in the following stages: farms and fruit development, harvest management, and logistics management (where temperature and controlled ATM are crucial). All these stages comply with HACCP.

-Internal Quality Checks: It is held during the selection and packing processes of samples.

-External Quality Checks: External verification units such as SENASICA, PrimusGFS, and Global GAP check the sample before shipments are loaded in containers and before the final departure. Moreover, SENASICA conducts due diligence on the farms and packinghouses annually, and licensed auditors inspect the farm and packinghouses for two weeks as well. For Mexican mangoes, 3rd party inspections are very common, and the fees related to auditing and certifications are paid by farmers/producers.

-Quality-Related Issues: Quality farm supervisor takes responsibility for harvest and packinghouse process-related quality claims, while other claims are handled by the suppliers through replacement policy during the next shipment or deducted from the remaining payment. 

There are quality regulations such as complying with local certificates such as SENASICA and NorMex, with global ones such as HACCP, PrimusGFS, Global GAP, BRC, SMETA; and USDA, USDA Organic, and FDA Registration (for the US Market).

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How Is the Price Trend for Thai Mango?

Mango prices are affected by several factors, including fertilizer cost, logistics and labor cost, and global demand and supply. Since Thailand is one of the top suppliers to the Chinese market, the price reacts sensitively to demand changes in China and how other suppliers send production volume to the Chinese market. 

The wholesale price of mangoes in Thailand was USD 2.06/kg in W3 May 2022 which is 172.6% higher compared to the USD 0.76/kg during the same week last year. The price of mangoes spiked from USD 0.88/kg in W2 March 2022 to its highest level in the past 12 months of USD 2.66 during W1 April 2022. Thai mango prices have largely remained above USD 2/kg since the spike in early March 2022.

The lower supply volume of mangoes at the start of the Indian production season in W2 March 2022 coincides with the spike in the price of Thai mangoes. A similar price spike can be observed in other markets such as South Korea and Taiwan. The price spike is most likely the result of lower supply in the international market coupled with high demand. Thai mango prices skyrocketed in March 2022 and have remained elevated. The high prices are likely the result of lower supply in international markets due to a small Indian crop. Thai mango exports are rising in 2022, with prices expected to remain high. Rising fertilizer and energy cost is also expected to keep affecting Thai mango prices in the wholesale market as well as global distribution market. 

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What are the current export and price trends of mangoes in Egypt?

Egyptian mangoes are mainly exported to the European market because of their close proximity. Despite being closer to Egypt, Middle Eastern mangoes’ lower prices make the market unpreferable for Egyptian exporters. In the current season, the biggest hurdle for exports is logistical issues as mangoes are time-sensitive producers that need to be shipped via air freight. Thus, it can be expensive to transport especially in smaller quantities. Egyptian mango prices are typically lower than the Southeast Asian mangoes. According to Tridge, Thai mango prices have increased 40% since April of 2019. Prices of Egyptian mangoes are expected to be slightly higher this year due to decreased production and labor shortages from the COVID-19 pandemic.

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What Are the Current Export and Price Trends of Mangoes in Mexico?

The main markets for Mexican mangoes are the US and Canada. Before the coronavirus pandemic, mango distribution was at 80% for exports and 20% for domestic consumption. However, the current numbers stand at 40% for exports and 60% for domestic consumption and processing. According to the National Mango Board (NMB), the total projected export volumes to the US are expected to be around 75 million boxes. Total exported volumes for the 2020 season will be 6% lower on a year-on-year basis. In primary markets, Mexico faces little competition from South American producers, with suppliers noting that Mexican mangoes have higher sugar levels and differences in the pulp. While Mexico has not seen a direct hit to production from the pandemic, the country has experienced a general decrease in demand from its main markets, with the addition of export restrictions. Local wholesale prices have decreased by half in certain states in Mexico, where prices have gone from 400 to 200 Pesos. FOB prices to the US port of entry in Texas have been higher for mango varieties including Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Kent.

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