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Product General

Mango Guide

Oct 21, 2021
Edited by
Hyesun Jang
image
HS Code: 080450 - Fruit, edible; guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried
|
FAO Code: 0571 - Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas
Top Exporter
2020
TH flagThailand
Top Importer
2020
CN flagChina
Top Producer
2020
IN flagIndia
Export Value
2020
3.61BUSD
1Y ≈ 0.81%
Import Value
2020
4BUSD
1Y ≈ -1.52%

Key varieties

What is the seasonality of Mexican mango?

Season production of mangoes along the coasts (either on the Pacific or on the Gulf coast) seems to occur at the same time due to similarities in climate. The main harvest season is from February-September. Cultivation season is on summer-spring in all the producing states due to plenty of rains.



Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are some of the common types of mangoes?

The main mango varieties in Mexico are Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, Haden, Manila, and Keith. Below is a description of commonly produced mango varieties in the world: 
  • Honey (Ataulfo): The flavor profile of honey mangoes is sweet and sour with tropical fruit notes. Honey mangoes have a very small seed, so there is a high flesh-to-seed ratio. The color is vibrant yellow and the shape is small and flattened like an oblong shape. The primary sourcing countries are Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and Brazil, and peak availability is from March to July.
  • Francis: The flavor profile of Francis is sweet and fruity. Francis mangoes grow on small farms throughout Haiti and are also sourced from Ecuador. The Francis variety is bright yellow in color with green overtones. They are oblong-shaped and peak in availability between May to June.
  • Haden: The Haden mango is sweet and sour with a slight, bitter aftertaste of tropical fruit. The flesh is firm due to the fine fibers and the variety comes in medium to large sizes. The primary sourcing countries include Mexico, Ecuador, and Peru, and peak availability is from March to May.
  • Keitt: The Keitt mango is sweet and fruity with notes of citrus. Keitt mangoes are popular in Asian culture, where they are enjoyed in their mature-green stage. This variety is primarily sourced from Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil, and the U.S., peaking in availability between March to April, as well as August to September.
  • Kent: Kent mangoes are sweet with hints of sour notes and characteristic for their peach and tropical aroma. The Kent variety originated in Florida in the 1940s and is ideal for juicing and/or drying. Ripening cues of the Kent include yellow undertones or dots that cover more of the mango over time.
  • Tommy Atkins: Tommy Atkins is tart with sweet, tropical, and citrus flavors originating from Florida. The Tommy Atkins is the most widely grown commercial type coming into the U.S. This variety is known for its dark red blush hue and oblong shape. They are primarily sourced in Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, and Guatemala while peaking in availability between March and July. 
Mexico
Fresh Mango

How Are Mangoes Classified?

Mangoes are classified by the general appearance, quality, and condition:


Extra Class

  • Mangoes have superior quality and must be characteristic of the variety.

  • Mangoes of this class are mature, clean, well-trimmed, well-formed, smooth, and free from pre-harvest defects associated with insects, diseases, and handling.
  • Except for very slight superficial defects, these defects do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.

Class I

  • Mangoes have good quality is characteristic of the variety. 
  • Mangoes of this class are mature, clean, well-trimmed, well-formed, smooth, and free from pre-harvest defects associated with insects, diseases, and handling.
  • Except for very slight superficial defects, these defects do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.

Class II

  • Mangoes do not qualify as Extra Class or Class I but satisfy the requirement of Class II.
  • Mangoes of this class are mature, reasonably clean, well-trimmed, fairly well-formed, smooth, and free from diseases, insects, infestation, and any damage that materially affects the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.
Thailand
Fresh Mango

Certificates

Which documents are needed to export Mexican mango?

Below is the list of documents required for export:

  • Tax ID (RFC) of the company or person who is exporting
  • Trademark or proof of authorization to use the commercial name
  • Bar code acquired from Mexican Association of Standards for Electronic Commerce (AMECE)
  • Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) of the Ministry of Health (SSA) issues the following certificates:

         1. Free Export Certificate

         2. Export Certificate

         3. Certificate for export of conformity of good sanitary practices

         4. Certificate for export of conformity with product analysis

  • Export authorization from the Ministry of Trade
  • The documents that prove to comply with non-tariff barriers
  • Commercial invoice
  • Packing list
  • Certificate of Origin
  • Phytosanitary Certificates from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality)
  • Exports Declaration
Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are certifications needed for exporting Mexican mangoes?

There are quality regulations such as complying with local certificates such as SENASICA and NorMex, with global ones such as HACCP, PrimusGFS, Global GAP, BRC, SMETA; and USDA, USDA Organic and FDA Registration (for the US Market).

Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are certifications for exporting Spanish mangoes?

Phytosanitary certificate for Fruit Flies: Mangoes are highly susceptible to fruit flies. traces of infestation can lead to export bans. 

Global GAP is the most basic certification required by many channels. 

Spain
Fresh Mango

Main producing region

In which parts of Mexico are mangoes produced?

Mango cultivation in Mexico takes place in the Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, South, North, and part of the Pacific Coast of the country, however, the main commercial producing states are Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz.


Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca produce around 22% of the total national production, while Sinaloa and Baja California Sur produce 34.51% of the total national production.

Mexico
Fresh Mango

Where are Peruvian mangoes produced?

The dry tropics of Northern Peru allow the production of the fruit of characteristics of color and flavor unbeatable without the health problems generated by tropical rains. These characteristics promote the obtaining of a mango exquisite and well-accepted both locally internationally. 90% of the fruit leaves the port of Paita in Piura, where precisely 76.37% of the Peruvian production is handled.


The rest is grown in Lambayeque (16.9%) and in Ancash (6.71%), in the Casma Valleys. 




Peru
Fresh Mango

Where are major producing regions in Spain?

-The mango production in Spain is concentrated in the coastal strip of Andalusia, bordered by Malaga and Motril, the same location where many of the avocado plantations are also cultivated due to the Mediterranean climatic conditions.

-The area used for cultivation of mangoes are limited by 2 significant factors: water availability and many of the plantations are directly competing land use with the tourism sector which also generates a huge source of profit.




Spain
Fresh Mango

Market outlook

What are the current export and price trends of mangoes in Mexico?

The main markets for Mexican mangoes are the US and Canada. Before the coronavirus pandemic, mango distribution was at 80% for exports and 20% for domestic consumption. However, the current numbers stand at 40% for exports and 60% for domestic consumption and processing. According to the National Mango Board (NMB), the total projected export volumes to the US are expected to be around 75 million boxes. Total exported volumes for the 2020 season will be 6% lower on a year-on-year basis. In primary markets, Mexico faces little competition from South American producers, with suppliers noting that Mexican mangoes have higher sugar levels and differences in the pulp. While Mexico has not seen a direct hit to production from the pandemic, the country has experienced a general decrease in demand from its main markets, with the addition of export restrictions. Local wholesale prices have decreased by half in certain states in Mexico, where prices have gone from 400 to 200 Pesos. FOB prices to the US port of entry in Texas have been higher for mango varieties including Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Kent.

Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are the expectations for Peruvian mangoes in 2021?

Mango exports for the 2020/21 campaign will be 15% lower than exports made during the previous year. The main factor that will affect shipments is the drought that affects the north of the country. The Peruvian Association of Mango Producers and Exporters (APEM) estimated that mango exports for the 2020/2021 campaign will exceed 200,000 Tons, a volume that would be far from the 234,000 Tons achieved during the past year (-15%).


The factor affecting mango production is the drought faced by regions off the north coast of Peru. The lack of rainfall, associated with what would be the La Niña Phenomenon, is causing reservoirs not to reach the levels necessary to irrigate the plantations, especially in these key months, because it is when mango plants in that area require continuous irrigation for the fruit to reach the calibers demanded in the international market.

Peru
Fresh Mango

What are potential markets for Spain mangoes?

France is a notable market for Spain's mango exports.




Spain
Fresh Mango

Production Value Chain

How Is Thai Mango Harvested?

During the mango harvest, mangoes can be handpicked up to 4 times. The fruit is harvested at its mature-green stage (before ripeness). Mature mangoes will ripen after picking during the handling and distribution. The mango stems release latex or "milk," which can cause skin burn damages on mangoes. Some producers use special grids or molds to allow the latex to drip, while other producers choose to wash the fruit after harvest in a solution that prevents latex burn. Mangoes are sorted in the orchard according to their class (Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3). Class 3 mangoes are separated from other types due to their skin damage. Class 1 and Class 2 mangoes are sorted in the packing shed according to their size, shape, skin appearance, and damage before they are packed into different weights of cartons. 

Thailand
Fresh Mango

What is the production trend for mangoes in Thailand?

Thai mango production has been experiencing declines since 2015 and had a dip in 2017-2018, which continued until 2019. 



Egypt
Fresh Mango

How is the Peruvian mango supply chain formed?

Farmers -> Packhouses -> Exporters

Most of the time, farmers export directly themselves wherein they bring the mangoes to the packinghouses which are then exported under their (exporter’s) name. In times when exporters have partner farms, they direct the farmers to grow the crops in a certain way to meet certain production specifications. There are only few exporting companies that source from small farmers and they are usually the big exporters. Other times, large packinghouses have their own farms for which they can do everything in-house. Usually, the fruit is picked when the order comes in. Generally, for the 2021 season, the crops from Piura were not as good wherein the lack of rainfall resulted to smaller mangoes. On the other hand, mangoes from Casma are expected to be of larger size and of better quality. 



Peru
Fresh Mango

Production Seasonality

What Is the Mango Seasonality?

The seasonality of mangos ranges depending on the country, growing region, and variety. However, seasonality extends between February and October. For example, mangos are primarily harvested in Pakistan from June to August. In Mexico, mangos are in season anywhere between January and September. In Egypt, mangos are harvested between June and August and occasionally extend until November. 



Pakistan
Fresh Mango

What Is the Thai Mango Seasonality?

Mangoes grow all year round, with peak harvest season from March to June.

Thailand
Fresh Mango

How is the seasonality?

-The short season fits perfectly well in the import supply schedule of mangoes for the EU. Supplying in the months where most other sources of mangoes are in decline. Earliest is the Osteen mango in August until November.

-During the harvest season, Osteen mangoes are so competitive that importers from Brazil, Mexico etc adjust their importing schedules to avoid direct competition with Spain and simply waits for the Spanish mango season to be over before resuming imports. As Spain increases their production, importers must bear longer and longer wait. But this is not always the case.

-In years of low Spanish mango production, Brazilian mangoes flood the EU market with low quality and low-priced mangoes, and Spanish exporters have no choice but to lower their pricing to compete in the market.

-Another drawback of betting on a single variety is that the harvest season for the entire production market is the same hence prices tend to fall when supplies are high or it can be challenging to meet some quotas for export.


Spain
Fresh Mango

Production Quality

What are some common diseases and pests associated with mangoes?

  • Anthracnose: Most widespread fungal disease of the mango tree, prone to attacking the flowers, leaves, twigs, and fruits; main symptoms include the appearance of brown to black spots on the leaves and/or twigs.
  • Stem-end rots: Fungal infestations which affect the twigs and leaves; are transmitted to the fruit by attacking the stalk area in the form of greyish-brown spots.
  • Mildew: Caused by the fungus Oidium mangiferae; growing particularly well in hot and humid countries upon flowering and fruit-setting.
  • Bacteriosis: Widespread in mango cultivation areas; caused by a bacterium that damages the plant and fruit by developing dark angular and oily spots accompanied by yellowish rings.
  • Phytophthora canker: Affects the mango tree trunks with dark, longitudinal wounds in the bark which conceal brown necrosis of the underlying tissues and disrupts the tree’s nutrient supply.
  • Parasitic animals: Rats, squirrels, and small rodents can attack the fruit, young plant, or manto tree bark causing significant damage.
  • Fruit fly species: One of the biggest scourges that affect the mango is the fruit epidermis; the flies lay eggs on the fruit epidermis and rapidly hatch, producing larvae that feed on the flesh.
  • Mites: Feed on the leaves and attack the fruit, making the mangoes incompatible with marketing requirements.
  • Thrips: Extremely common polyphagous insect which causes defoliation in both mango nurseries and plantations.
Mexico
Fresh Mango

How is the quality check process done?

An official certificate from SENASA(National service of agrarian sanity of Peru) is necessary to export the mangoes.

-SENASA supervises the whole inspection process from visiting the farms, entering the packinghouses, and finishing packing.

-SENASA seals the product after the inspection process and issues the phytosanitary certificate.

Peru
Fresh Mango

What are quality related issues?

Most common quality related issues are regarding product development and remnants of agrosupplies such as pesticides, fungicides, fertilizers, and vitamins. Problems also arise on post harvest handling. 

Mexico
Fresh Mango

Price Trend

How Is the Price Determined for Thai Mango?

  • The price of mangoes is usually dictated by supply and demand. The varying mango price trends reflect the consumption trends of mangoes. 
  • Domestic prices of fresh mango are lower than the exported price of fresh mango.
  • The quality and variety also affect the price. Mangoes that satisfy export quality are more expensive than local varieties.
  • Mango prices drop to their lowest during the peak season (March to June) because larger quantities are available.
  • Traders usually dictate the price of fresh mangoes based on competition and existing market prices.
  • Predecessors usually set the price of mango based on their operating cost - processed mangoes, such as dried mango, have high demand but limited supply, which allows processors to set high prices.
  • On a side note, it is essential to keep in mind that the price of substitute or alternative fruits can impact mangoes (peaches, papaya, cantaloupe, etc.).
Thailand
Fresh Mango

What are the current export and price trends of mangoes in Egypt?

Egyptian mangoes are mainly exported to the European market because of their close proximity. Despite being closer to Egypt, Middle Eastern mangoes’ lower prices make the market unpreferable for Egyptian exporters. In the current season, the biggest hurdle for exports is logistical issues as mangoes are time-sensitive producers that need to be shipped via air freight. Thus, it can be expensive to transport especially in smaller quantities. Egyptian mango prices are typically lower than the Southeast Asian mangoes. According to Tridge, Thai mango prices have increased 40% since April of 2019. Prices of Egyptian mangoes are expected to be slightly higher this year due to decreased production and labor shortages from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Egypt
Fresh Mango

Regulation in Exporting Country

Are mango producers regulated by the Mexican government?

The Mexican government requires all mango producers to adhere to:

  • Approved seeds from a government-authorized distributor.
  • Obtain a Phytosanitary Certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture, which in fact is a Phytosanitary Certificate from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality). This covers the use of irrigation water, the sowing land, fertilizers used, and the chemical sprays used for pests and disease control.
  • Certificate of Good Agricultural Practices (G.A.P.), and Food Safety Management (F.S.M.). This covers all the farming techniques from sowing, cultivating, and harvesting methods.
  • Product quality certificate during or before harvesting when farmers classify the product (a certificate of a laboratory analysis), although it can also be done after harvesting, mostly by packing houses/farmers.
Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are documents required for exporting?

Export Documents Required:

Tax ID (RFC) of the company or person who is exporting

Trademark or proof of authorization to use the commercial name

Bar code acquired from Mexican Association of Standards for Electronic Commerce (AMECE)

Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) of the Ministry of Health (SSA) issues the following certificates:

Free Export Certificate

Export Certificate

Certificate for export of conformity of good sanitary practices

Certificate for export of conformity with product analysis

Export authorization from the Ministry of Trade

The documents that prove to comply with non-tariff barriers

Commercial invoice

Packing list

Certificate of Origin

Phytosanitary Certificates from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality)

Exports Declaration

Mexico
Fresh Mango

Export process

How Are Contracts Structured for Thai Mango?

Contracts between suppliers and buyers are relatively simple for fresh mangoes. The contract is often based on a production quantity timeline, variety breakdown, size, and other product details. The buyers can purchase the mangoes in advance (prepaid) or partially paid for upon loading, settling the remainder after delivery. Contracts are often based on prepaid sales for processed mango products but are tied to world rates. Processed mangoes are more prone to price fluctuations, resulting in long-term negotiations. However, this can be revised depending on the availability and competition of other products, especially for purees and juices.

Thailand
Fresh Mango

When is the export season of Peruvian mangoes?

Peruvian window export for mangoes begins by the month of October ending in April, the peak goes through December to March where it concentrates 93% (201M USD) of yearly exports.



Peru
Fresh Mango

What Is the Exporting Process for Thai Mango?

Exporting Process:

  1. Purchase order submitted
  2. Payment verified by the supplier
  3. Mangoes harvested
  4. Mangoes purchased by packing house
  5. Mangoes sorted
  6. Mangoes transported to a steam factory
  7. Mangoes cooled
  8. Mangoes shipped on the day of steaming or sent after by air or sea (depends on destination)

Mango mass ranges from 250g (small) to 500g (big). The size preference of mango depends on the buyer country. For example, in South Korea, consumers favor smaller mangoes ranging from 200g to 300g. On the other hand, size preference in Hong Kong and Taiwan is larger, and mangoes range from 400g to 500g. Key export destinations require mango steaming to prevent fruit flies. Green stage mangoes (unripe mangoes) are steamed to avoid mangoes from being over-ripe (steaming speeds the ripening process).


In 2021, due to severe port congestion, mangoes were transported by air more commonly.


*Required Documents: Bill of Lading (BL), Certificate of Origin (CO), Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Health Certificate (EU Countries)

Thailand
Fresh Mango

Issues & Entry barriers

Main importers

Who are the main importers of Peruvian mangoes?

Nature's Pride is one of the biggest importers of fruits in the worlds, they are the main importers of Peruvian mangoes with 4.8M USD, customs data does not show who imported 3.6M USD but in third place, we find Global Producers with 3.1M USD, Camposol Fresh with 2.9M USD and CH Robinson with 2.5M USD, we have many other important importers around the world.


Peru
Fresh Mango

Which countries are main importers?

The predominant market is Europe and the US, with various countries in Europe demanding different standards. 


Netherlands: +13.2% YoY (2020), +128.5% (2011-2020)

The import quantity of mangoes has increased by 50% over a 5-year period (2016-2020). As the Netherlands is considered to be the gateway to the EU, it might also be more productive to target the rest of Europe. The market consists heavily of Peruvian and Brazilian mangoes


US: +27% YoY (2020)

While the US is the second-largest export market for Peru and has shown a YoY increase of 27%, the expert we have contacted has informed us that the main market of export in his opinion is the US, much more so than Europe. There is competition with Mexico, especially due to lower freight costs. Prices for the last season on the East coast were at USD 3-5 per box, and the West coast USD 5.50 – 9 per box.


Other Eurpean Markets: 

Mangoes traded in the Netherlands and Spain mainly go to Germany, the UK, France, and Portugal. French and Portuguese consumers place high value in the taste, while consumers in Germany and the United Kingdom uphold the highest standards in terms of certification.




Peru
Fresh Mango

Who Are the Main Importers of Thai Mango?

China, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea are the main importers of Thai mangoes. A large number of mangoes imported to Vietnam are exported to China. 



Thailand
Fresh Mango
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