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Product General

Mango Guide

Oct 21, 2021
Edited by
Hyesun Jang
image
HS Code: 080450 - Fruit, edible; guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried
|
FAO Code: 0571 - Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas
Top Exporter
2020
TH flagThailand
Top Importer
2020
CN flagChina
Top Producer
2019
IN flagIndia
Export Value
2020
3.74BUSD
1Y +3.82%
Import Value
2020
3.88BUSD
1Y -4.12%

Key varieties

What is the seasonality of Mexican mango?

Season production of mangoes along the coasts (either on the Pacific or on the Gulf coast) seems to occur at the same time due to similarities in climate. The main harvest season is from February-September. Cultivation season is on summer-spring in all the producing states due to plenty of rains.



Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are some of the common types of mangoes?

The main mango varieties in Mexico are Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, Haden, Manila, and Keith. Below is a description of commonly produced mango varieties in the world: 
  • Honey (Ataulfo): The flavor profile of honey mangoes is sweet and sour with tropical fruit notes. Honey mangoes have a very small seed, so there is a high flesh-to-seed ratio. The color is vibrant yellow and the shape is small and flattened like an oblong shape. The primary sourcing countries are Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and Brazil, and peak availability is from March to July.
  • Francis: The flavor profile of Francis is sweet and fruity. Francis mangoes grow on small farms throughout Haiti and are also sourced from Ecuador. The Francis variety is bright yellow in color with green overtones. They are oblong-shaped and peak in availability between May to June.
  • Haden: The Haden mango is sweet and sour with a slight, bitter aftertaste of tropical fruit. The flesh is firm due to the fine fibers and the variety comes in medium to large sizes. The primary sourcing countries include Mexico, Ecuador, and Peru, and peak availability is from March to May.
  • Keitt: The Keitt mango is sweet and fruity with notes of citrus. Keitt mangoes are popular in Asian culture, where they are enjoyed in their mature-green stage. This variety is primarily sourced from Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil, and the U.S., peaking in availability between March to April, as well as August to September.
  • Kent: Kent mangoes are sweet with hints of sour notes and characteristic for their peach and tropical aroma. The Kent variety originated in Florida in the 1940s and is ideal for juicing and/or drying. Ripening cues of the Kent include yellow undertones or dots that cover more of the mango over time.
  • Tommy Atkins: Tommy Atkins is tart with sweet, tropical, and citrus flavors originating from Florida. The Tommy Atkins is the most widely grown commercial type coming into the U.S. This variety is known for its dark red blush hue and oblong shape. They are primarily sourced in Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, and Guatemala while peaking in availability between March and July. 
Mexico
Fresh Mango

How are mangoes classified?

Mangoes are classified according to their general appearance, quality, and condition:

Extra Class

  • Mangoes are of superior quality and have the characteristics of variety.
  • Mature, clean, well-trimmed, well-formed, smooth, and free from pre-harvest defects associated with insects, diseases, and handling.
  • With exception of very slight superficial defects, provided that these defects do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.

Class I

  • Mangoes are of good quality and have the characteristics of variety.
  • Mature, clean, well-trimmed, well-formed, smooth, and free from pre-harvest defects associated with insects, diseases, and handling.
  • With exception of very slight superficial defects, provided that these defects do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.

Class II

  • Mangoes do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes but satisfy the requirement of Class II.
  • Mature, fairly clean, well-trimmed, fairly well-formed, smooth, and free from diseases, insects, infestation, and any damage that materially affects the general appearance of the produce, the keeping quality, and presentation in the package.
Thailand
Fresh Mango

Certificates

Which documents are needed to export Mexican mango?

Below is the list of documents required for export:

  • Tax ID (RFC) of the company or person who is exporting
  • Trademark or proof of authorization to use the commercial name
  • Bar code acquired from Mexican Association of Standards for Electronic Commerce (AMECE)
  • Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) of the Ministry of Health (SSA) issues the following certificates:

         1. Free Export Certificate

         2. Export Certificate

         3. Certificate for export of conformity of good sanitary practices

         4. Certificate for export of conformity with product analysis

  • Export authorization from the Ministry of Trade
  • The documents that prove to comply with non-tariff barriers
  • Commercial invoice
  • Packing list
  • Certificate of Origin
  • Phytosanitary Certificates from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality)
  • Exports Declaration
Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are certifications needed for exporting Mexican mangoes?

There are quality regulations such as complying with local certificates such as SENASICA and NorMex, with global ones such as HACCP, PrimusGFS, Global GAP, BRC, SMETA; and USDA, USDA Organic and FDA Registration (for the US Market).

Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are certifications for exporting Spanish mangoes?

Phytosanitary certificate for Fruit Flies: Mangoes are highly susceptible to fruit flies. traces of infestation can lead to export bans. 

Global GAP is the most basic certification required by many channels. 

Spain
Fresh Mango

Main producing region

In which parts of Mexico are mangoes produced?

Mango cultivation in Mexico takes place in the Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, South, North, and part of the Pacific Coast of the country, however, the main commercial producing states are Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz.


Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca produce around 22% of the total national production, while Sinaloa and Baja California Sur produce 34.51% of the total national production.

Mexico
Fresh Mango

Where are Peruvian mangoes produced?

The dry tropics of Northern Peru allow the production of the fruit of characteristics of color and flavor unbeatable without the health problems generated by tropical rains. These characteristics promote the obtaining of a mango exquisite and well-accepted both locally internationally. 90% of the fruit leaves the port of Paita in Piura, where precisely 76.37% of the Peruvian production is handled.


The rest is grown in Lambayeque (16.9%) and in Ancash (6.71%), in the Casma Valleys. 




Peru
Fresh Mango

Where are major producing regions in Spain?

-The mango production in Spain is concentrated in the coastal strip of Andalusia, bordered by Malaga and Motril, the same location where many of the avocado plantations are also cultivated due to the Mediterranean climatic conditions.

-The area used for cultivation of mangoes are limited by 2 significant factors: water availability and many of the plantations are directly competing land use with the tourism sector which also generates a huge source of profit.




Spain
Fresh Mango

Market outlook

What are the current export and price trends of mangoes in Mexico?

The main markets for Mexican mangoes are the US and Canada. Before the coronavirus pandemic, mango distribution was at 80% for exports and 20% for domestic consumption. However, the current numbers stand at 40% for exports and 60% for domestic consumption and processing. According to the National Mango Board (NMB), the total projected export volumes to the US are expected to be around 75 million boxes. Total exported volumes for the 2020 season will be 6% lower on a year-on-year basis. In primary markets, Mexico faces little competition from South American producers, with suppliers noting that Mexican mangoes have higher sugar levels and differences in the pulp. While Mexico has not seen a direct hit to production from the pandemic, the country has experienced a general decrease in demand from its main markets, with the addition of export restrictions. Local wholesale prices have decreased by half in certain states in Mexico, where prices have gone from 400 to 200 Pesos. FOB prices to the US port of entry in Texas have been higher for mango varieties including Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Kent.

Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are the expectations for Peruvian mangoes in 2021?

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Peru
Fresh Mango

What are potential markets for Spain mangoes?

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Spain
Fresh Mango

Production Value Chain

How are mangoes harvested?

Mangoes are handpicked up to 4 times during the harvest season. The fruit is harvested at the so-called mature-green stage (before ripeness). Mature mangoes will ripen after being picked during the handling and distribution period. Mango stems release latex or ’milk’ which can cause burn damages on the skin of the mangoes. Some producers use special grids or molds to allow the latex to drip while others choose to wash the fruit after harvest in a special solution to prevent latex burn. Mangoes are sorted in the orchard, according to classes 1 to 3. Class 3 fruit in particular is separated from the rest due to its skin damage. Class 1 and 2 fruit are sorted in the packing shed according to their size, shape, skin appearance, and damage, and then packed into different weights of cartons.

Thailand
Fresh Mango

What is the production trend for mangoes in Thailand?

Thai mango production has been experiencing declines since 2015 and had a dip in 2017-2018, which continued until 2019. 



Egypt
Fresh Mango

How is the Peruvian mango supply chain formed?

Farmers -> Packhouses -> Exporters

Most of the time, farmers export directly themselves wherein they bring the mangoes to the packinghouses which are then exported under their (exporter’s) name. In times when exporters have partner farms, they direct the farmers to grow the crops in a certain way to meet certain production specifications. There are only few exporting companies that source from small farmers and they are usually the big exporters. Other times, large packinghouses have their own farms for which they can do everything in-house. Usually, the fruit is picked when the order comes in. Generally, for the 2021 season, the crops from Piura were not as good wherein the lack of rainfall resulted to smaller mangoes. On the other hand, mangoes from Casma are expected to be of larger size and of better quality. 



Peru
Fresh Mango

Production Seasonality

What is the main harvest season for mangoes?

The seasonality of mangoes ranges depending on the country, growing region, and variety, but usually extends between February and October. In Pakistan, mangoes are mostly harvested between June, July, and August. In Mexico, mangoes are in season anywhere between January and September. In Egypt, mangoes are harvested between June and August and occasionally extend until November. 


Thailand
Fresh Mango

How is the seasonality of mangoes in Thailand?

Mangoes grow all-year-round, but its peak harvest season is from March to June

Thailand
Fresh Mango

How is the seasonality?

-The short season fits perfectly well in the import supply schedule of mangoes for the EU. Supplying in the months where most other sources of mangoes are in decline. Earliest is the Osteen mango in August until November.

-During the harvest season, Osteen mangoes are so competitive that importers from Brazil, Mexico etc adjust their importing schedules to avoid direct competition with Spain and simply waits for the Spanish mango season to be over before resuming imports. As Spain increases their production, importers must bear longer and longer wait. But this is not always the case.

-In years of low Spanish mango production, Brazilian mangoes flood the EU market with low quality and low-priced mangoes, and Spanish exporters have no choice but to lower their pricing to compete in the market.

-Another drawback of betting on a single variety is that the harvest season for the entire production market is the same hence prices tend to fall when supplies are high or it can be challenging to meet some quotas for export.


Spain
Fresh Mango

Production Quality

What are some common diseases and pests associated with mangoes?

  • Anthracnose: Most widespread fungal disease of the mango tree, prone to attacking the flowers, leaves, twigs, and fruits; main symptoms include the appearance of brown to black spots on the leaves and/or twigs.
  • Stem-end rots: Fungal infestations which affect the twigs and leaves; are transmitted to the fruit by attacking the stalk area in the form of greyish-brown spots.
  • Mildew: Caused by the fungus Oidium mangiferae; growing particularly well in hot and humid countries upon flowering and fruit-setting.
  • Bacteriosis: Widespread in mango cultivation areas; caused by a bacterium that damages the plant and fruit by developing dark angular and oily spots accompanied by yellowish rings.
  • Phytophthora canker: Affects the mango tree trunks with dark, longitudinal wounds in the bark which conceal brown necrosis of the underlying tissues and disrupts the tree’s nutrient supply.
  • Parasitic animals: Rats, squirrels, and small rodents can attack the fruit, young plant, or manto tree bark causing significant damage.
  • Fruit fly species: One of the biggest scourges that affect the mango is the fruit epidermis; the flies lay eggs on the fruit epidermis and rapidly hatch, producing larvae that feed on the flesh.
  • Mites: Feed on the leaves and attack the fruit, making the mangoes incompatible with marketing requirements.
  • Thrips: Extremely common polyphagous insect which causes defoliation in both mango nurseries and plantations.
Mexico
Fresh Mango

How is the quality check process done?

An official certificate from SENASA(National service of agrarian sanity of Peru) is necessary to export the mangoes.

-SENASA supervises the whole inspection process from visiting the farms, entering the packinghouses, and finishing packing.

-SENASA seals the product after the inspection process and issues the phytosanitary certificate.

Peru
Fresh Mango

What are quality related issues?

Most common quality related issues are regarding product development and remnants of agrosupplies such as pesticides, fungicides, fertilizers, and vitamins. Problems also arise on post harvest handling. 

Mexico
Fresh Mango

Price Trend

What determines the prices of mangoes?

  • The price of mangoes is regularly dictated by demand and supply; the varying price trend signifies how the market is consuming mangoes.
  • The price of fresh mangoes in the domestic market is lower compared to its export price.
  • Quality and mango variety also have an impact on price - mangoes that are of export quality have a higher price than local varieties.
  • In addition, during peak season (from March to June) when larger volumes are available, the price of mangoes drops to its lowest.
  • The price of fresh mangoes is usually dictated by traders based on competition and existing market prices.
  • The price of mango is usually set by predecessors based on their operating cost - processed mangoes such as dried have high demand but with limited supply which allows processors to set high prices.
  • On a side note, it is also important to keep in mind that the price of substitute or alternative fruits can impact that of mangoes (e.g. peaches, papaya, cantaloupe, etc.).
Thailand
Fresh Mango

What are the current export and price trends of mangoes in Egypt?

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Egypt
Fresh Mango

Regulation in Exporting Country

Are mango producers regulated by the Mexican government?

The Mexican government requires all mango producers to adhere to:

  • Approved seeds from a government-authorized distributor.
  • Obtain a Phytosanitary Certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture, which in fact is a Phytosanitary Certificate from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality). This covers the use of irrigation water, the sowing land, fertilizers used, and the chemical sprays used for pests and disease control.
  • Certificate of Good Agricultural Practices (G.A.P.), and Food Safety Management (F.S.M.). This covers all the farming techniques from sowing, cultivating, and harvesting methods.
  • Product quality certificate during or before harvesting when farmers classify the product (a certificate of a laboratory analysis), although it can also be done after harvesting, mostly by packing houses/farmers.
Mexico
Fresh Mango

What are documents required for exporting?

Export Documents Required:

Tax ID (RFC) of the company or person who is exporting

Trademark or proof of authorization to use the commercial name

Bar code acquired from Mexican Association of Standards for Electronic Commerce (AMECE)

Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) of the Ministry of Health (SSA) issues the following certificates:

Free Export Certificate

Export Certificate

Certificate for export of conformity of good sanitary practices

Certificate for export of conformity with product analysis

Export authorization from the Ministry of Trade

The documents that prove to comply with non-tariff barriers

Commercial invoice

Packing list

Certificate of Origin

Phytosanitary Certificates from SENASICA (National Service of Health, Safety, and Agrifood Quality)

Exports Declaration

Mexico
Fresh Mango

Export process

How are supplier agreements for mangoes structured?

Contracts between supplier and recipient are fairly simple for fresh mango products. The agreement is often based on a campaign schedule setting out the desired quantities, the breakdown by variety, size, and other product details. The merchandise can either be purchased prepaid or partly paid for upon loading with the remainder settled after acceptance of the fruit. As for processed products, contracts are most often based on prepaid sales but tied to world rates. Processed mangoes are more prone to price fluctuations which can result in long-term price negotiations. However, this can be revised depending on the availability and competition of other products, especially for purees and juices.

Thailand
Fresh Mango

When is the export season of Peruvian mangoes?

Peruvian window export for mangoes begins by the month of October ending in April, the peak goes through December to March where it concentrates 93% (201M USD) of yearly exports.



Peru
Fresh Mango

How is the export process?

 Purchase order comes out -> supplier checks the money received -> mangoes are collected-> packinghouse purchases the mangoes from supplier -> packinghouse sorts the mangoes according to size -> Mangoes are sent to steam factory -> mangoes are cooled -> mangoes are exported on the day of steaming, or sent after through the air or sea freight depending on location

The smallest size for mangoes is 250 grams, with the biggest being 500 grams. The favored mango sizes depend on the destination country, for example, in South Korea mango sizes of 200-300 grams are the most prevalent. For mangoes going into Hong Kong and Taiwan, bigger sizes are more preferred, from 400-500 grams. Steaming the mangoes is required in some key export countries, and this is done in order to prevent fruit flies. In order to prevent mangoes from being too ripe at arrival, steaming is done when mangoes are unripe, or at their green state, as steaming quickens the ripening process.

At the current moment, due to sea transit taking much longer than usual due to logistical clogs, air freight is much more commonly used. 


*Required Documents: Bill of Landing (BL), Certificate of Origin (CO), Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Health Certificate (EU Countries)

Thailand
Fresh Mango

Issues & Entry barriers

Main importers

Who are the main importers of Peruvian mangoes?

Nature's Pride is one of the biggest importers of fruits in the worlds, they are the main importers of Peruvian mangoes with 4.8M USD, customs data does not show who imported 3.6M USD but in third place, we find Global Producers with 3.1M USD, Camposol Fresh with 2.9M USD and CH Robinson with 2.5M USD, we have many other important importers around the world.


Peru
Fresh Mango

Which countries are main importers?

The predominant market is Europe and the US, with various countries in Europe demanding different standards. 


Netherlands: +13.2% YoY (2020), +128.5% (2011-2020)

The import quantity of mangoes has increased by 50% over a 5-year period (2016-2020). As the Netherlands is considered to be the gateway to the EU, it might also be more productive to target the rest of Europe. The market consists heavily of Peruvian and Brazilian mangoes


US: +27% YoY (2020)

While the US is the second-largest export market for Peru and has shown a YoY increase of 27%, the expert we have contacted has informed us that the main market of export in his opinion is the US, much more so than Europe. There is competition with Mexico, especially due to lower freight costs. Prices for the last season on the East coast were at USD 3-5 per box, and the West coast USD 5.50 – 9 per box.


Other Eurpean Markets: 

Mangoes traded in the Netherlands and Spain mainly go to Germany, the UK, France, and Portugal. French and Portuguese consumers place high value in the taste, while consumers in Germany and the United Kingdom uphold the highest standards in terms of certification.




Peru
Fresh Mango

Which countries are top destinations of Thai mangoes?

China, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea are the top destinations for Thai mangoes. Vietnam is a large importing market for Thai mangoes, in which they re-export a large number of mangoes to China. 




Thailand
Fresh Mango
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