Intelligence

Mango

Market Intelligence of Mango
Scientific Name
Mangifera indica
Top Producer
India
Real-time Price help
Nov 18
Mar 19
$2.9
-5.9%Monthly
Production Volume
1997
2016
46.51M tons
-Yearly

Overview of Global Mango Market

Featured below is a detailed overview of the global Mango market information. You can discover details including: top producing & exporting countries, real-time market prices, local product varieties, seasonality, production & export volumes, and more

Real-time Wholesale Market Prices of Mango
WarningBeta

Global Average Price

$2.89

USD per kg
Yesterday
-
Last week
-7.0%
Last month
-5.9%
Last year
+6.4%
  • Last updated on Mar 20

Price Volatility

+18.33%

18.3%
Medium
  • The Coefficient of Variance measures the volatility of price trends. The higher this value becomes, the more volatile its trend is.

Wholesale Price Trend of Mango

Top 5
Top 10
Top 20

Top Producing Countries of Mango

Total Production Volume

46.51M

Metric Ton
Last year
-
Last 3 year
+4.5%
Last 5 year
+16.0%
  • Reported for year 2016

Market Concentration

18.87%

Medium

Global Mango Production Trend

Top 5
Top 10
Top 20
Country
Production Volume
in 2016
Rank in
Production Volume
Production Price Range For Last 5 Years
India
18,779,000
1
China
4,664,272
2
Thailand
3,432,129
3
Mexico
2,197,313
4
Indonesia
2,184,399
5
$ 0.00
$ 600.00
$ 1.20K
$ 1.80K
$ 2.40K
$ 3.00K
Unit: USD/ton

Suppliers of Mango

Registered Suppliers For
Mango
4,234
Learn more about
India
26.03%
Pakistan
7.82%
Egypt
7.3%
Thailand
6.83%
Mexico
4.18%
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Season of Mango

No seasonality data
As of now, there are no countries available.

Market Details of Mango

Usages

B2B Channel
Mangoes are mainly intended for fresh consumption, in which case the fruit are cut in half and the flesh spooned out. Mangoes are also canned and are used to make mango sauces, mango chutney, stewed mango and preserves. Due to their high nutritional value, mangoes are also used as baby and invalid food.
Consumer Channel
Mangoes are consumed raw in spring and summer seasons. They are also used in Salads and ice-creams in frozen forms.

Storage

Temperature
Temperature Rel. humidity O2 CO2 Suitability for controlled atmosphere
12.2 - 13.3°C 85 - 90% 5% 5% very good


Preparation /Processing Procedure

Mango Products
Essentially a prime table fruit, mango pulp is perfectly suited for conversion to juices,
nectars, drinks, jams, fruit cheese or to be had by itself or with cream as a superb dessert. It can also be used in puddings, bakery fillings, and fruit meals for children, flavours for food industry, and also to make the most delicious ice cream and yoghurt. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like chutney, pickle, amchoor (mango powder), green mango beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc. Major export products include dried and preserved vegetables, mango and other fruit pulp, jams, fruit jellies, canned fruits and vegetables, dehydrated vegetables, frozen fruits, vegetables and pulp, freeze dried products and traditional Indian products like pickles and chutneys. Processed mangoes enable exporters to serve their markets even during off-season period for fresh mangoes. Ripe mangoes may be frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar (1part sugar to 10 parts mango by weight) and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers. The diced flesh of ripe mangoes, bathed in sweetened or unsweetened lime juice, to prevent discoloration, can be quick-frozen, as can sweetened ripe or green mango puree. Immature mangoes are often blown down by spring winds. Half-ripe or green mangoes are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce, which, with added milk and egg whites, can be converted into mango sherbet. Green mangoes are peeled, sliced, parboiled, then combined with sugar, salt, various spices and cooked, sometimes with raisins or other fruits, to make chutney; or they may be salted, sun-dried and kept for use in chutney and pickles. Thin slices, seasoned with turmeric, are dried, and sometimes powdered, and used to impart an acid flavour to chutneys, vegetables and soup. Green or ripe mangoes may be used to make relish

Industrial Processing Possibilities:

Several options have become available for large scale processing of mango products.
1. Mango pulp
2. Juice
3. Nectar
4. Fruit sauces
5. Fruit cocktails
6. Dried mango slices
7. Mango wine
8. Glazings
9. Flavoured yoghurt
10. Ice cream


Pulping and juicing:

A key step for preparation of the above products is pulping, as described below.
Flowcharts are included which depict the manufacturing steps for mango products.

1. Fruit selection. Several requirements need to be met:

Lack of insect infestation
Lack of mechanical injuries
Stage of maturity
Uniform colour and texture
Minimum soluble solids of 13 ° Brix
pH value of 3.5 to 4.0
The receiving area must be clean, well ventilated, and free of insects, rodents or other
animals. It is not advisable to hold the fruits too long before processing to avoid spoilage.

2. Washing
The washing pit should be filled with water containing 15 ppm chlorine in order to reduce
microbial load and impurities from the fruit. A second washing with clean water is made to eliminate residual chlorine.

3. Blanching
This operation is done to inactivate enzymes, eliminate air inside the fruit tissues, remove off fflavours and aromas, fix fruit colour and soften the tissues for further pulping.
Two methods are currently used to effect blanching: dip in boiling water or direct steam
injection. The thermal treatment is applied such that internal fruit temperature reaches 75°C. This usually requires 10 minutes in boiling water, or 6 minutes with steam. Fruit is blanched unpeeled.

4. Peeling and cutting
Pulp is separated from the seed manually with knives made of stainless steel, on a working bench. Mango pieces are placed in clean plastic containers and taken to the pulping machine.

5. Pulping
Mesocarp pieces are passed through a fine mesh to remove undesirable particles. After
pulping, a smooth puree is obtained. Recommended mesh size is 0.5 mm. coarser material is separated in the process and disposed properly. The pulp is transferred in containers to the kettle.

6. Thermal treatment
A heat treatment is applied in the kettle to prevent chemical and microbial spoilage. In this treatment the pulp reaches 95 ° C and is held for 10 min. with continuous stirring.

7. Additives
The use of additives is recommended to extend the pulp shelf life. Commonly used additives include 0.39 percent citric acid to decrease pH and prevent microbial growth and enhance effectiveness of preservatives as sodium benzoate (0.5 percent).
To prevent discoloration 0.1 percent ascorbic acid is used as antioxidant. Additives are
incorporated to the pulp right before the thermal treatment is finished (ca. 5 min before) by dispersing in hot water or pulp and proper stirring. Final product should have 13 °Brix and pH values between 3.4 to 3.5.

8. Packing
The pulp is packed when hot in plastic containers, sealed immediately and flipped over so the internal part of the lid gets in contact with the hot product. All packing materials must be clean before used.

9. Cooling
Hot containers are cooled with fresh water at the lowest temperature attainable. After cooling, lid closings should be inspected. Finally, containers are cleaned and labels affixed to be sent to a fresh, clean storage place.



Drying

Dryers around the world are using improved methods to make all sorts of new dried fruit
products. Many of these make great natural snacks. Mango is delicious as a snack, in a sauce or in a salad. Snacks are packed in transparent plastic bags. (mango stripes) mangoes are dried in the form of pieces, powders, and flakes. Drying procedures such as sun drying, tray drying tunnel dehydration, vacuum drying, osmotic dehydration may be used. Packaged and stored properly, dried mango products are stable and nutritious.

One described process involves as pretreatment dipping mango slices for 18 hr (ratio 1:1) in a solution containing 40°Brix sugar, 3 000 ppm SO2, 0.2 percent ascorbic acid and 1 percent citric acid; this method is described as producing the best dehydrated product. Drying is described using an electric cabinet through flow dryer operated at 60°C. The product showed no browning after 1 year of storage.


Ripe mangoes

Ripe mangoes are a popular fruit and may be used for stewed fruits, fruit jam, fruitcakes and many other standard fruit applications; they can, however, even used for savoury dishes. Indonesian fruit salad (rujak) combines fresh fruits (not too ripe mango, pineapple, papaya, in Java frequently cucumber) with a pungent sauce of palm sugar (won from coconut or other palm trees), fresh red chiles and salt; on Bali, a hint of shrimp paste is never omitted. The result tastes even more delicious that the recipe looks strange! Mexicans sometimes use ripe mangoes or other tropical fruits for their fiery salsas (Katzer, 2000).Mango fruits have been utilized for long time at every stage of growth. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like pickle, amchoor, green mango beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc.
Ripe mango fruit has a characteristic blend of taste and flavour. It contains important
amounts of sugar, pectin, carotenoids, etc. Due to comparatively shorter storage life of mango fruits, it is essential to prepare their products immediately.

Mango Leather or Aam Papad: Homogenized mango pulp is prepared and potassium
metabisulphite is added to it at a rate of 2 g/kg of pulp. The pulp is then spread on trays
smeared without and kept for drying in solar dehydrator or sun. After drying of one layer,
another layer is spread over it and dried. The process is repeated until the desired thickness is attained. Finally the leather slabs are cut into pieces and wrapped in butter paper or plastic
sheets.


Raw mango products

Mango fruits during early stages of growth are commonly used for sweet or sour chutney. As the fruits attain stone hardening stage, they become suitable for some other useful products like amchoor (seasoning made by pulverizing sun-dried, unripe (green) mango into a fine powder. Amchoor has a tart, acidic, fruity flavour that adds character to many dishes including meats, vegetables and curried preparations. It's also used to tenderize poultry, meat and fish), pickle, etc.



Fresh-cut Mangoes

Mangoes could be an attractive addition to the growing market for fresh-cut produce, but
browning and drying have prevented such marketing. Researchers at the USDA-ARS
Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory found that fresh-cut mangoes could be preserved by treating the slices with a combination of hexylresorcinol, isoascorbic acid and potassium sorbate (all food-safe compounds derived from natural products) and storing the slices in plastic containers to prevent drying. Treating whole fruits with methyl jasmonate (an inexpensive product derived from plant essential oils) prevented the development of chilling injury during cold storage and hence markedly increased fruit quality after storage. The treatment worked on fruits at various stages of maturity and had no effect on ripening, softening processes or water loss.



Canning
Canned mangoes do not have to meet any specific standards, but CODEX Alimentarius
(Latin, meaning Food Law or Code, UN Commission for Food Standards) is developing
international standards. In general, mangoes are processed in cans or in glass jars. FDA
requires nutritional facts written on containers. Mangoes are the common product name of the canned food that is made from properly prepared fresh mango varieties, that have the peel (rind), stems and pits (stones) removed; shall be packed in a packing medium consisting of water, with or without a sweetening ingredient, or natural reconstituted, concentrated fruit juice or juices, or fruit puree or nectar, with or without a sweetening ingredient; and may contain: pectin, a suitable acid ingredient, calcium-based firming agents, and beta-carotene.

Styles. The styles of mangoes are: halves, if the mango is cut into two approximately equal parts along the pit or stone from stem to apex; slices, if the mango is cut into long, slender pieces either lengthwise or crosswise; diced, if the mango is cut into approximately cubeshaped pieces with at least 12 millimetres on the longest side; and pieces, mixed pieces or irregular pieces, if the mango is cut into pieces of irregular shape and size. Quality Standards: have a colour that is typical of the variety; have a characteristic flavour and aroma of properly prepared, properly processed canned mangoes; in the case of "slices" style, these shall be reasonably uniform in size, and in the case of "halves" style, have at least 90 per cent by count of the units approximately the same size; in the case of "halves" and "slices" styles, shall not have more than 20 per cent of the units cut other than parallel to the crease, and not have more than half of those units cut horizontally; have units that are reasonably fleshy with little objectionable fibre, and not excessively soft or excessively firm, and in a 500 g sample of the drained product, not contain more than: six square centimetres in the aggregate of rind, one-eighth of a stone equivalent of pit material, and one piece of harmless extraneous plant material not greater than 10 millimetres in any dimension; and not have more than 30 per cent by count of units that: are blemished by discolouration or dark spots on the surface or that penetrate into the flesh, or in the case of "halves" and "slices" styles, have trim damage with gouges in the units serious enough to detract from the appearance of the product, and five per cent by drained weight of units that are crushed and severed into two or more parts or have lost their normal shape. Mangoes, when properly packed, shall have a minimum drained weight that is not less than 55 per cent of the weight of distilled water at 20°C that the sealed container will hold when full. Varieties most suited for canning include Creole, Mora, Filipino, Irwin and Haden.
Mango Pulp
Essentially a prime table fruit, mango pulp is perfectly suited for conversion to juices,
nectars, drinks, jams, fruit cheese or to be had by itself or with cream as a superb dessert. It can also be used in puddings, bakery fillings, and fruit meals for children, flavours for food industry, and also to make the most delicious ice cream and yoghurt. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like chutney, pickle, amchoor (mango powder), green mango beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc. Major export products include dried and preserved vegetables, mango and other fruit pulp, jams, fruit jellies, canned fruits and vegetables, dehydrated vegetables, frozen fruits, vegetables and pulp, freeze dried products and traditional Indian products like pickles and chutneys. Processed mangoes enable exporters to serve their markets even during off-season period for fresh mangoes. Ripe mangoes may be frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar (1part sugar to 10 parts mango by weight) and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers. The diced flesh of ripe mangoes, bathed in sweetened or unsweetened lime juice, to prevent discoloration, can be quick-frozen, as can sweetened ripe or green mango puree. Immature mangoes are often blown down by spring winds. Half-ripe or green mangoes are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce, which, with added milk and egg whites, can be converted into mango sherbet. Green mangoes are peeled, sliced, parboiled, then combined with sugar, salt, various spices and cooked, sometimes with raisins or other fruits, to make chutney; or they may be salted, sun-dried and kept for use in chutney and pickles. Thin slices, seasoned with turmeric, are dried, and sometimes powdered, and used to impart an acid flavour to chutneys, vegetables and soup. Green or ripe mangoes may be used to make relish

Industrial Processing Possibilities:

Several options have become available for large scale processing of mango products.
1. Mango pulp
2. Juice
3. Nectar
4. Fruit sauces
5. Fruit cocktails
6. Dried mango slices
7. Mango wine
8. Glazings
9. Flavoured yoghurt
10. Ice cream


Pulping and juicing:

A key step for preparation of the above products is pulping, as described below.
Flowcharts are included which depict the manufacturing steps for mango products.

1. Fruit selection. Several requirements need to be met:

Lack of insect infestation
Lack of mechanical injuries
Stage of maturity
Uniform colour and texture
Minimum soluble solids of 13 ° Brix
pH value of 3.5 to 4.0
The receiving area must be clean, well ventilated, and free of insects, rodents or other
animals. It is not advisable to hold the fruits too long before processing to avoid spoilage.

2. Washing
The washing pit should be filled with water containing 15 ppm chlorine in order to reduce
microbial load and impurities from the fruit. A second washing with clean water is made to eliminate residual chlorine.

3. Blanching
This operation is done to inactivate enzymes, eliminate air inside the fruit tissues, remove off fflavours and aromas, fix fruit colour and soften the tissues for further pulping.
Two methods are currently used to effect blanching: dip in boiling water or direct steam
injection. The thermal treatment is applied such that internal fruit temperature reaches 75°C. This usually requires 10 minutes in boiling water, or 6 minutes with steam. Fruit is blanched unpeeled.

4. Peeling and cutting
Pulp is separated from the seed manually with knives made of stainless steel, on a working bench. Mango pieces are placed in clean plastic containers and taken to the pulping machine.

5. Pulping
Mesocarp pieces are passed through a fine mesh to remove undesirable particles. After
pulping, a smooth puree is obtained. Recommended mesh size is 0.5 mm. coarser material is separated in the process and disposed properly. The pulp is transferred in containers to the kettle.

6. Thermal treatment
A heat treatment is applied in the kettle to prevent chemical and microbial spoilage. In this treatment the pulp reaches 95 ° C and is held for 10 min. with continuous stirring.

7. Additives
The use of additives is recommended to extend the pulp shelf life. Commonly used additives include 0.39 percent citric acid to decrease pH and prevent microbial growth and enhance effectiveness of preservatives as sodium benzoate (0.5 percent).
To prevent discoloration 0.1 percent ascorbic acid is used as antioxidant. Additives are
incorporated to the pulp right before the thermal treatment is finished (ca. 5 min before) by dispersing in hot water or pulp and proper stirring. Final product should have 13 °Brix and pH values between 3.4 to 3.5.

8. Packing
The pulp is packed when hot in plastic containers, sealed immediately and flipped over so the internal part of the lid gets in contact with the hot product. All packing materials must be clean before used.

9. Cooling
Hot containers are cooled with fresh water at the lowest temperature attainable. After cooling, lid closings should be inspected. Finally, containers are cleaned and labels affixed to be sent to a fresh, clean storage place.



Drying

Dryers around the world are using improved methods to make all sorts of new dried fruit
products. Many of these make great natural snacks. Mango is delicious as a snack, in a sauce or in a salad. Snacks are packed in transparent plastic bags. (mango stripes) mangoes are dried in the form of pieces, powders, and flakes. Drying procedures such as sun drying, tray drying tunnel dehydration, vacuum drying, osmotic dehydration may be used. Packaged and stored properly, dried mango products are stable and nutritious.

One described process involves as pretreatment dipping mango slices for 18 hr (ratio 1:1) in a solution containing 40°Brix sugar, 3 000 ppm SO2, 0.2 percent ascorbic acid and 1 percent citric acid; this method is described as producing the best dehydrated product. Drying is described using an electric cabinet through flow dryer operated at 60°C. The product showed no browning after 1 year of storage.


Ripe mangoes

Ripe mangoes are a popular fruit and may be used for stewed fruits, fruit jam, fruitcakes and many other standard fruit applications; they can, however, even used for savoury dishes. Indonesian fruit salad (rujak) combines fresh fruits (not too ripe mango, pineapple, papaya, in Java frequently cucumber) with a pungent sauce of palm sugar (won from coconut or other palm trees), fresh red chiles and salt; on Bali, a hint of shrimp paste is never omitted. The result tastes even more delicious that the recipe looks strange! Mexicans sometimes use ripe mangoes or other tropical fruits for their fiery salsas (Katzer, 2000).Mango fruits have been utilized for long time at every stage of growth. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like pickle, amchoor, green mango beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc.
Ripe mango fruit has a characteristic blend of taste and flavour. It contains important
amounts of sugar, pectin, carotenoids, etc. Due to comparatively shorter storage life of mango fruits, it is essential to prepare their products immediately.

Mango Leather or Aam Papad: Homogenized mango pulp is prepared and potassium
metabisulphite is added to it at a rate of 2 g/kg of pulp. The pulp is then spread on trays
smeared without and kept for drying in solar dehydrator or sun. After drying of one layer,
another layer is spread over it and dried. The process is repeated until the desired thickness is attained. Finally the leather slabs are cut into pieces and wrapped in butter paper or plastic
sheets.


Raw mango products

Mango fruits during early stages of growth are commonly used for sweet or sour chutney. As the fruits attain stone hardening stage, they become suitable for some other useful products like amchoor (seasoning made by pulverizing sun-dried, unripe (green) mango into a fine powder. Amchoor has a tart, acidic, fruity flavour that adds character to many dishes including meats, vegetables and curried preparations. It's also used to tenderize poultry, meat and fish), pickle, etc.



Fresh-cut Mangoes

Mangoes could be an attractive addition to the growing market for fresh-cut produce, but
browning and drying have prevented such marketing. Researchers at the USDA-ARS
Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory found that fresh-cut mangoes could be preserved by treating the slices with a combination of hexylresorcinol, isoascorbic acid and potassium sorbate (all food-safe compounds derived from natural products) and storing the slices in plastic containers to prevent drying. Treating whole fruits with methyl jasmonate (an inexpensive product derived from plant essential oils) prevented the development of chilling injury during cold storage and hence markedly increased fruit quality after storage. The treatment worked on fruits at various stages of maturity and had no effect on ripening, softening processes or water loss.



Canning
Canned mangoes do not have to meet any specific standards, but CODEX Alimentarius
(Latin, meaning Food Law or Code, UN Commission for Food Standards) is developing
international standards. In general, mangoes are processed in cans or in glass jars. FDA
requires nutritional facts written on containers. Mangoes are the common product name of the canned food that is made from properly prepared fresh mango varieties, that have the peel (rind), stems and pits (stones) removed; shall be packed in a packing medium consisting of water, with or without a sweetening ingredient, or natural reconstituted, concentrated fruit juice or juices, or fruit puree or nectar, with or without a sweetening ingredient; and may contain: pectin, a suitable acid ingredient, calcium-based firming agents, and beta-carotene.

Styles. The styles of mangoes are: halves, if the mango is cut into two approximately equal parts along the pit or stone from stem to apex; slices, if the mango is cut into long, slender pieces either lengthwise or crosswise; diced, if the mango is cut into approximately cubeshaped pieces with at least 12 millimetres on the longest side; and pieces, mixed pieces or irregular pieces, if the mango is cut into pieces of irregular shape and size. Quality Standards: have a colour that is typical of the variety; have a characteristic flavour and aroma of properly prepared, properly processed canned mangoes; in the case of "slices" style, these shall be reasonably uniform in size, and in the case of "halves" style, have at least 90 per cent by count of the units approximately the same size; in the case of "halves" and "slices" styles, shall not have more than 20 per cent of the units cut other than parallel to the crease, and not have more than half of those units cut horizontally; have units that are reasonably fleshy with little objectionable fibre, and not excessively soft or excessively firm, and in a 500 g sample of the drained product, not contain more than: six square centimetres in the aggregate of rind, one-eighth of a stone equivalent of pit material, and one piece of harmless extraneous plant material not greater than 10 millimetres in any dimension; and not have more than 30 per cent by count of units that: are blemished by discolouration or dark spots on the surface or that penetrate into the flesh, or in the case of "halves" and "slices" styles, have trim damage with gouges in the units serious enough to detract from the appearance of the product, and five per cent by drained weight of units that are crushed and severed into two or more parts or have lost their normal shape. Mangoes, when properly packed, shall have a minimum drained weight that is not less than 55 per cent of the weight of distilled water at 20°C that the sealed container will hold when full. Varieties most suited for canning include Creole, Mora, Filipino, Irwin and Haden.

Quality Attributes

Transportation Quality
To ensure high quality, it is important for the skin to be undamaged. Even the slightest injury would result in rapid spoilage with this very sensitive fruit. Care must also be taken to ensure that the fruit is not overripe, as this would have a negative impact on salability
Mango
Mango quality indices include uniformity of shape and size, freedom from decay and
defects, skin color that is characteristic of the cultivar, flesh color, flesh firmness
(juiciness, fiber content), and flavor (sweetness, acidity, aroma intensity).

Brix is one of the most important factor that defines taste of Mangoes. The higher the brix, the sweeter mangoes taste. Brix for mangoes range between 12~24 depending on variety/specie.
Mango
Mango quality indices include uniformity of shape and size, freedom from decay and
defects, skin color that is characteristic of the cultivar, flesh color, flesh firmness
(juiciness, fiber content), and flavor (sweetness, acidity, aroma intensity).

Brix is one of the most important factor that defines taste of Mangoes. The higher the brix, the sweeter mangoes taste. Brix for mangoes range between 12~24.

Quality Standard Grades & Measures

.
.
.
.
Mango Grades and Standards
1. U.S. Fancy consists of mangos of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, clean, well formed, well trimmed, and which are free from decay, overripe, freezing, internal discoloration, insects, larva, insect or larva feeding, skin breaks which are not healed, and free from injury by healed skin breaks, bruising, scab, shriveling, external (surface) discoloration, sunken discolored areas, scars, russeting, other diseases, mechanical or other means.
a. Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the mangos in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, including in this amount not more than 5 percent shall be allowed for defects causing damage, including in this latter amount not more than 2 percent shall be allowed for decay.

2. U.S. No.1 consists of mangos of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, clean, fairly well formed, well trimmed, and which are free from decay, overripe, freezing, skin breaks which are not healed and extend into the flesh, insects or larva, and free from damage caused by insect or larva feeding, bruising, shriveling, scab, external (surface) discoloration, internal discoloration, sunken discolored areas, scars, russeting, other diseases, mechanical or other means.
a. Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the mangos in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, including in this amount not more than 5 percent shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, including in this latter amount not more than 2 percent shall be allowed for decay.

3. U.S. No. 2 consists of mangos of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, clean, fairly well formed, well trimmed, and which are free from decay, overripe, freezing, skin breaks which are not healed and extend into the flesh, insects or larva, and free from serious damage caused by insect or larva feeding, bruising, shriveling, scab, external (surface) discoloration, internal discoloration, sunken discolored areas, scars, russeting, other diseases, mechanical or other means.
a. Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the mangos in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, included in this amount not more than 2 percent shall be allowed for decay.



Export grading
Grading should be carried out to remove fruit outside of the specifications and to meet quality requirements. No separate size grading into specific sizes and counts within cartons are required, assuming that the minimum size is attained. Shredded paper may be included in the base of the carton; no individual fruit wrapping is required.Pickling Keitt and Kent varieties mangoes should be loose packed to a net weight of between 13 and 18.2 kg. Cartons must not be overfilled during packing.
Mango Grades and Standards
1. U.S. Fancy consists of mangos of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, clean, well formed, well trimmed, and which are free from decay, overripe, freezing, internal discoloration, insects, larva, insect or larva feeding, skin breaks which are not healed, and free from injury by healed skin breaks, bruising, scab, shriveling, external (surface) discoloration, sunken discolored areas, scars, russeting, other diseases, mechanical or other means.
a. Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the mangos in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, including in this amount not more than 5 percent shall be allowed for defects causing damage, including in this latter amount not more than 2 percent shall be allowed for decay.

2. U.S. No.1 consists of mangos of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, clean, fairly well formed, well trimmed, and which are free from decay, overripe, freezing, skin breaks which are not healed and extend into the flesh, insects or larva, and free from damage caused by insect or larva feeding, bruising, shriveling, scab, external (surface) discoloration, internal discoloration, sunken discolored areas, scars, russeting, other diseases, mechanical or other means.
a. Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the mangos in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, including in this amount not more than 5 percent shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, including in this latter amount not more than 2 percent shall be allowed for decay.

3. U.S. No. 2 consists of mangos of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, clean, fairly well formed, well trimmed, and which are free from decay, overripe, freezing, skin breaks which are not healed and extend into the flesh, insects or larva, and free from serious damage caused by insect or larva feeding, bruising, shriveling, scab, external (surface) discoloration, internal discoloration, sunken discolored areas, scars, russeting, other diseases, mechanical or other means.
a. Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the mangos in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, included in this amount not more than 2 percent shall be allowed for decay.

Size Variation per Specie

Mango
The fruits are 2 to 9 inches long and may be kidney shaped, ovate or (rarely) round. They range in size from 8 ounces to around 24 ounces.

Packaging Methods

Transportation Packaging
Mangoes are packaged in a single layer in fruit crates and cartons. Due to their great sensitivity to pressure, the fruit are sometimes wrapped in paper or padded with wood wool, bast, straw or hay.
Packing
Fruit can be prepared for packing in three ways:

1. With stems removed. A sap flow will occur if the stems are removed. The initial spurt of sap will burn the fruit, leaving a blemish that will develop during storage and transport. Sap burns must be avoided. Clip the stems short, while holding the fruit with the stem end down.Place the fruit on a de-sapping bench and allow them to drain for 20 to 30 minutes until the sap flow has stopped. A fine water spray over the fruit helps to reduce the chances of sap burn. Recent trials in Queensland have found that dipping fruit in water containing 1 ml/l of wetting agent reduces the risk of sap burn even further.

2. With stems attached. Trim stems as described in the Harvesting section. More care is
required when handling this fruit so that stems are not accidentally broken.

3. In a 450 x 290 x 105 mm (internal dimensions) telescopic tray. This package is robust and it presents and protects the fruit well. A plastic cup insert, called a plix liner, is used. This acts as a packing guide and also 'nests' the fruit. For best presentation, pack the fruit with the stem end down and convex curve up. This position also prevents any sap that oozes after the fruit has been packed from spoiling the appearance of the fruit. The package must be packed firmly and have a gross weight of 7 to 7.5 kg. Stickers identifying the brand are important. They should be distinctive in colour and simple in design. Fruit, which is nearly always removed from the package for retail display, cannot be identified without a sticker Full-telescopic two-piece fibreboard carton ("banana" type) or one-piece waxed self-locking("bushel" type) cartons may be used. The bursting strength is 275 psi. Central dividers and shredded paper may be used to assist with carton strength and product protection. Where staples are used for carton construction, care should be taken to ensure complete staple closure to avoid fruit damage. Carton internal dimensions: 20 by 51 by 34 cm (7.9" by 20" by 13.4") and 29.5 by 44 by 29.5cm (11.6" by l7.3" by 11.6").

Wooden boxes are commonly used for packaging and transportation of mango fruits. Under dynamic transport conditions nails come out due to vibration and puncture the fruits, which result in bruising, decay and low price of fruits. Further, too much ventilation affects the quality of fruits due to shrinkage, loss in weight, colour, etc. To overcome these problems, CFB (carton fibreboard) Boxes of 5 kg and 10 kg capacity for packing and shipping of mango fruits successfully as an alternative to traditional nailed wooden boxes. The use of CFB boxes for packaging for the domestic market is also the need of the hour due to scarcity of the wood and environmental concerns. For export purposes, CFB boxes are already in extensive use. Paper scraps, newspapers, etc., are commonly used as cushioning material for the packaging of fruits which prevent them from getting bruised and spoiled during storage and transportation. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) lining has also been found beneficial as it maintains humidity, which results in lesser shrinkage during storage. Wrapping of fruits individually (Unipack) with newspaper or tissue paper and packing in honeycomb structure helps in getting optimum ripening with reduced spoilage. Normally the lid of the wooden boxes is nailed with an area of 5 to 7 cm high in the middle. This puts pressure on the fruits during transport and results into reduced quality. Therefore, farmers should be very careful while packing the fruits.

Preservation Methods

Mango Pulp/ Puree
There are generally two ways to preserve mango pulp/puree i.e, aseptic packaging or freezing the product.
Usages
Storage
Preparation /Processing Procedure
Quality Attributes
Quality Standard Grades & Measures
Size Variation per Specie
Packaging Methods
Preservation Methods

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